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Airplane Flying Handbook

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures




Vmc—Minimum control airspeed.
This is the minimum flight speed at
which a twin-engine airplane can be
satisfactorily controlled when an
engine suddenly becomes inoperative
and the remaining engine is at takeoff

Vmd—Minimum drag speed.

Vmo—Maximum operating speed
expressed in knots.

Vne—Never-exceed speed. Operating
above this speed is prohibited since it
may result in damage or structural
failure. The red line on the airspeed

Vno—Maximum structural cruising
speed. Do not exceed this speed
except in smooth air. The upper limit
of the green arc.

Vp—Minimum dynamic hydroplaning
speed. The minimum speed
required to start dynamic

Vr—Rotation speed. The speed that
the pilot begins rotating the aircraft
prior to lift-off.

Vso—Stalling speed or the minimum
steady flight speed in the landing configuration.
In small airplanes, this is
the power-off stall speed at the maximum
landing weight in the landing
configuration (gear and flaps down).
The lower limit of the white arc.

Vs1—Stalling speed or the minimum
steady flight speed obtained in a
specified configuration. For most
airplanes, this is the power-off stall
speed at the maximum takeoff weight
in the clean configuration (gear up, if
retractable, and flaps up). The lower
limit of the green arc.

Vsse—Safe, intentional one-engine
inoperative speed. The minimum
speed to intentionally render the
critical engine inoperative.

V-TAIL—A design which utilizes
two slanted tail surfaces to perform

Vx—Best angle-of-climb speed. The
airspeed at which an airplane gains the
greatest amount of altitude in a given
distance. It is used during a short-field
takeoff to clear an obstacle.

Vxse—Best angle of climb speed with
one engine inoperative. The airspeed
at which an airplane gains the greatest
amount of altitude in a given distance
in a light, twin-engine airplane
following an engine failure.

Vy—Best rate-of-climb speed. This
airspeed provides the most altitude
gain in a given period of time.

Vyse—Best rate-of-climb speed with
one engine inoperative. This airspeed
provides the most altitude gain in a
given period of time in a light, twin engine
airplane following an engine

vortices that are created when an
airplane generates lift. When an
airplane generates lift, air spills over
the wingtips from the high pressure
areas below the wings to the low
pressure areas above them. This flow
causes rapidly rotating whirlpools of
air called wingtip vortices or wake

WASTE GATE—A controllable
valve in the tailpipe of an aircraft
reciprocating engine equipped with a
turbocharger. The valve is controlled
to vary the amount of exhaust gases
forced through the turbocharger

WEATHERVANE—The tendency of
the aircraft to turn into the relative

WEIGHT—A measure of the
heaviness of an object. The force by
which a body is attracted toward the
center of the Earth (or another
celestial body) by gravity. Weight is
equal to the mass of the body times
the local value of gravitational
acceleration. One of the four main
forces acting on an aircraft.
Equivalent to the actual weight of the
aircraft. It acts downward through the
aircraft's center of gravity toward the
center of the Earth. Weight opposes

aircraft is said to be in weight and
balance when the gross weight of the
aircraft is under the max gross weight,
and the center of gravity is within
limits and will remain in limits for the
duration of the flight.

A condition caused when forward
yoke or stick pressure during takeoff
or landing causes the aircraft to ride
on the nosewheel alone.

Correction applied to the course to
establish a heading so that track will
coincide with course.

Indicators that include a wind sock,
wind tee, or tetrahedron. Visual
reference will determine wind
direction and runway in use.

WIND SHEAR—A sudden, drastic
shift in windspeed, direction, or both
that may occur in the horizontal or
vertical plane.

WINDMILLING—When the air
moving through a propeller creates
the rotational energy.

WINDSOCK—A truncated cloth
cone open at both ends and mounted
on a freewheeling pivot that indicates
the direction from which the wind is

WING—Airfoil attached to each side
of the fuselage and are the main
lifting surfaces that support the
airplane in flight.
the same functions as the surfaces of a
conventional elevator and rudder
configuration. The fixed surfaces act
as both horizontal and vertical