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Airplane Flying Handbook

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures




errors inherent in a magnetic compass
caused by the dip compensating
weight. It shows up only on turns to or
from northerly headings in the
Northern Hemisphere and southerly
headings in the Southern Hemisphere.
Turning error causes the compass to
lead turns to the north or south and lag
turns away from the north or south.

In stress analysis, the load that causes
physical breakdown in an aircraft or
aircraft component during a strength
test, or the load that according to
computations, should cause such a

ACCUMULATOR—Tanks that hold
oil under pressure which can be used
to unfeather a propeller.

A nongovernment air/ground radio
communication station which may
provide airport information at public
use airports where there is no tower or

cannot be consumed by the engine.
This fuel is considered part of the
empty weight of the aircraft.

USEFUL LOAD—The weight of the
pilot, copilot, passengers, baggage,
usable fuel, and drainable oil. It is the
basic empty weight subtracted from
the maximum allowable gross weight.
This term applies to general aviation
aircraft only.

An airplane that has a seating
configuration, excluding pilot seats,
of nine or less, a maximum
certificated takeoff weight of 12,500
pounds or less, and intended for
limited acrobatic operation.

V-BARS—The flight director
displays on the attitude indicator that
provide control guidance to the pilot.

V-SPEEDS—Designated speeds for a
specific flight condition.

VAPOR LOCK—A condition in
which air enters the fuel system and it
may be difficult, or impossible, to
restart the engine. Vapor lock may
occur as a result of running a fuel tank
completely dry, allowing air to enter
the fuel system. On fuel-injected
engines, the fuel may become so hot it
vaporizes in the fuel line, not allowing
fuel to reach the cylinders.

Va—The design maneuvering speed.
This is the "rough air" speed and the
maximum speed for abrupt
maneuvers. If during flight, rough air
or severe turbulence is encountered,
reduce the airspeed to maneuvering
speed or less to minimize stress on the
airplane structure. It is important to
consider weight when referencing this
speed. For example, VA may be 100
knots when an airplane is heavily
loaded, but only 90 knots when the
load is light.

VECTOR—A force vector is a
graphic representation of a force and
shows both the magnitude and
direction of the force.

VELOCITY—The speed or rate of
movement in a certain direction.

VERTICAL AXIS—An imaginary
line passing vertically through the
center of gravity of an aircraft. The
vertical axis is called the z-axis or the
yaw axis.

A magnetic compass that consists of
an azimuth on a vertical card,
resembling a heading indicator with a
fixed miniature airplane to accurately
present the heading of the aircraft.
The design uses eddy current
damping to minimize lead and lag
during turns.

An instrument that uses static pressure
to display a rate of climb or descent in
feet per minute. The VSI can also
sometimes be called a vertical
velocity indicator (VVI).

about an aircraft's vertical axis. Also
called yawing or directional stability.

Vfe—The maximum speed with the
flaps extended. The upper limit of the
white arc.

Vfo—The maximum speed that the
flaps can be extended or retracted.

CHARTS (1:250,000)—
Depict Class B airspace which
provides for the control or
segregation of all the aircraft within
the Class B airspace. The chart depicts
topographic information and
aeronautical information which
includes visual and radio aids
to navigation, airports, controlled
airspace, restricted areas, obstructions,
and related data.

V-G DIAGRAM—A chart that
relates velocity to load factor. It is
valid only for a specific weight,
configuration, and altitude and shows
the maximum amount of positive or
negative lift the airplane is capable of
generating at a given speed. Also
shows the safe load factor limits and
the load factor that the aircraft can
sustain at various speeds.

The most common visual glidepath
system in use. The VASI provides
obstruction clearance within 10° of
the extended runway centerline, and
to 4 nautical miles (NM) from the
runway threshold.

Code of Federal Regulations that govern
the procedures for conducting
flight under visual conditions.

Vle—Landing gear extended speed.
The maximum speed at which an
airplane can be safely flown with the
landing gear extended.

Vlof—Lift-off speed. The speed at
which the aircraft departs the runway
during takeoff.

Vlo—Landing gear operating speed.
The maximum speed for extending or
retracting the landing gear if using an
airplane equipped with retractable
landing gear.