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Airplane Flying Handbook
Glossary

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Glossary

STANDARD ATMOSPHERE—
At sea level, the standard atmosphere
consists of a barometric pressure of
29.92 inches of mercury (in. Hg.) or
1013.2 millibars, and a temperature of
15°C (59°F). Pressure and temperature
normally decrease as altitude
increases. The standard lapse rate in
the lower atmosphere for each 1,000
feet of altitude is approximately 1 in.
Hg. and 2°C (3.5°F). For example, the
standard pressure and temperature at
3,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) is
26.92 in. Hg. (29.92 - 3) and 9°C
(15°C - 6°C).

STANDARD DAY—
See STANDARD ATMOSPHERE.

STANDARD EMPTY WEIGHT
(GAMA)—This weight consists of
the airframe, engines, and all items of
operating equipment that have fixed
locations and are permanently
installed in the airplane; including
fixed ballast, hydraulic fluid, unusable
fuel, and full engine oil.

STANDARD WEIGHTS—These
have been established for numerous
items involved in weight and balance
computations. These weights should
not be used if actual weights are
available.

STANDARD-RATE TURN—A turn
at the rate of 3º per second which
enables the airplane to complete a
360º turn in 2 minutes.

STARTER/GENERATOR—
A combined unit used on turbine
engines. The device acts as a starter
for rotating the engine, and after
running, internal circuits are shifted to
convert the device into a generator.

STATIC STABILITY—The initial
tendency an aircraft displays when
disturbed from a state of equilibrium.

STATION—A location in the
airplane that is identified by a number
designating its distance in inches from
the datum. The datum is, therefore,
identified as station zero. An item
located at station +50 would have an
arm of 50 inches.

STICK PULLER—A device that
applies aft pressure on the control
column when the airplane is approaching
the maximum operating speed.
STICK PUSHER—A device that
applies an abrupt and large forward
force on the control column when the
airplane is nearing an angle of attack
where a stall could occur.
STICK SHAKER—An artificial
stall warning device that vibrates the
control column.
STRESS RISERS—
A scratch, groove, rivet hole, forging
defect or other structural discontinuity
that causes a concentration of stress.
SUBSONIC—Speed below the speed
of sound.
SUPERCHARGER—An engine- or
exhaust-driven air compressor used to
provide additional pressure to the
induction air so the engine can
produce additional power.
SUPERSONIC—Speed above the
speed of sound.
SUPPLEMENTAL TYPE
CERTIFICATE (STC)—
A certificate authorizing an alteration
to an airframe, engine, or component
that has been granted an Approved
Type Certificate.
SWEPT WING—A wing planform
in which the tips of the wing are
farther back than the wing root.

TAILWHEEL AIRCRAFT—
SEE CONVENTIONAL LANDING
GEAR.

TAKEOFF ROLL
(GROUND ROLL)—The total
distance required for an aircraft to
become airborne.

TARGET REVERSER—A thrust
reverser in a jet engine in which
clamshell doors swivel from the
stowed position at the engine tailpipe
to block all of the outflow and redirect
some component of the thrust
forward.

TAXIWAY LIGHTS—
Omnidirectional lights that outline the
edges of the taxiway and are blue in
color.

TAXIWAY TURNOFF LIGHTS—
Flush lights which emit a steady green
color.

TETRAHEDRON—
A large, triangular-shaped, kite-like
object installed near the runway.
Tetrahedrons are mounted on a pivot
and are free to swing with the wind to
show the pilot the direction of the
wind as an aid in takeoffs and
landings.

THROTTLE—The valve in a
carburetor or fuel control unit that
determines the amount of fuel-air
mixture that is fed to the engine.

THRUST LINE—An imaginary line
passing through the center of the
propeller hub, perpendicular to the
plane of the propeller rotation.

THRUST REVERSERS—Devices
which redirect the flow of jet exhaust
to reverse the direction of thrust.

THRUST—The force which imparts
a change in the velocity of a mass.
This force is measured in pounds but
has no element of time or rate. The
term, thrust required, is generally
associated with jet engines. A forward
force which propels the airplane
through the air.

TIMING—The application of
muscular coordination at the proper
instant to make flight, and all
maneuvers incident thereto, a constant
smooth process.

TIRE CORD—Woven metal wire
laminated into the tire to provide extra
strength. A tire showing any cord
must be replaced prior to any further
flight.

TORQUE METER—An indicator
used on some large reciprocating
engines or on turboprop engines to
indicate the amount of torque the
engine is producing.

 

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