| Home | Privacy | Contact |

Airplane Flying Handbook
Glossary

| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Glossary

PROPELLER
SYNCHRONIZATION—
A condition in which all of
the propellers have their pitch
automatically adjusted to maintain a
constant r.p.m. among all of the
engines of a multiengine aircraft.

PROPELLER—A device for
propelling an aircraft that, when
rotated, produces by its action on
the air, a thrust approximately
perpendicular to its plane of rotation.
It includes the control components
normally supplied by its
manufacturer.

RAMP WEIGHT—The total weight
of the aircraft while on the ramp. It
differs from takeoff weight by the
weight of the fuel that will be
consumed in taxiing to the point of
takeoff.

RATE OF TURN—The rate in
degrees/second of a turn.

RECIPROCATING ENGINE—An
engine that converts the heat energy
from burning fuel into the
reciprocating movement of the pistons.
This movement is converted into
a rotary motion by the connecting rods
and crankshaft.

REDUCTION GEAR—The gear
arrangement in an aircraft engine that
allows the engine to turn at a faster
speed than the propeller.

REGION OF REVERSE
COMMAND—Flight regime in
which flight at a higher airspeed
requires a lower power setting and a
lower airspeed requires a higher
power setting in order to maintain
altitude.

REGISTRATION
CERTIFICATE—A State and Federal
certificate that documents
aircraft ownership.

RELATIVE WIND—The direction
of the airflow with respect to the wing.
If a wing moves forward horizontally,
the relative wind moves backward
horizontally. Relative wind is parallel
to and opposite the flightpath of
the airplane.

REVERSE THRUST—A condition
where jet thrust is directed forward
during landing to increase the rate of
deceleration.

REVERSING PROPELLER—
A propeller system with a pitch
change mechanism that includes full
reversing capability. When the pilot
moves the throttle controls to reverse,
the blade angle changes to a pitch
angle and produces a reverse thrust,
which slows the airplane down during
a landing.

ROLL—The motion of the aircraft
about the longitudinal axis. It is
controlled by the ailerons.

ROUNDOUT (FLARE)—
A pitch up during landing approach to
reduce rate of descent and forward
speed prior to touchdown.

RUDDER—The movable primary
control surface mounted on the
trailing edge of the vertical fin of an
airplane. Movement of the rudder
rotates the airplane about its vertical
axis.

RUDDERVATOR—A pair of control
surfaces on the tail of an aircraft
arranged in the form of a V. These
surfaces, when moved together by the
control wheel, serve as elevators, and
when moved differentially by the
rudder pedals, serve as a rudder.

RUNWAY CENTERLINE
LIGHTS—Runway centerline lights
are installed on some precision
approach runways to facilitate landing
under adverse visibility conditions.
They are located along the runway
centerline and are spaced at 50-foot
intervals. When viewed from the
landing threshold, the runway
centerline lights are white until the
last 3,000 feet of the runway. The
white lights begin to alternate with red
for the next 2,000 feet, and for the last
1,000 feet of the runway, all centerline
lights are red.

RUNWAY CENTERLINE
MARKINGS—
The runway centerline identifies the
center of the runway and provides
alignment guidance during takeoff
and landings. The centerline consists
of a line of uniformly spaced stripes
and gaps.

RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS—
Runway edge lights are used to
outline the edges of runways during
periods of darkness or restricted
visibility conditions. These light
systems are classified according to the
intensity or brightness they are
capable of producing: they are the
High Intensity Runway Lights
(HIRL), Medium Intensity Runway
Lights (MIRL), and the Low Intensity
Runway Lights (LIRL). The HIRL
and MIRL systems have variable
intensity controls, whereas the LIRLs
normally have one intensity setting.

RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER
LIGHTS (REIL)—One component
of the runway lighting system. These
lights are installed at many airfields
to provide rapid and positive
identification of the approach end of a
particular runway.

RUNWAY INCURSION—
Any occurrence at an airport
involving an aircraft, vehicle, person,
or object on the ground that creates a
collision hazard or results in loss of
separation with an aircraft taking off,
intending to takeoff, landing, or
intending to land.

RUNWAY THRESHOLD
MARKINGS—Runway threshold
markings come in two configurations.
They either consist of eight
longitudinal stripes of uniform
dimensions disposed symmetrically
about the runway centerline, or the
number of stripes is related to the
runway width. A threshold marking
helps identify the beginning of the
runway that is available for landing.
In some instances, the landing
threshold may be displaced.

SAFETY (SQUAT) SWITCH—An
electrical switch mounted on one of
the landing gear struts. It is used to
sense when the weight of the aircraft
is on the wheels.

SCAN—A procedure used by the
pilot to visually identify all resources
of information in flight.

 

G-12