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Airplane Flying Handbook
Glossary

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Glossary

MACH TUCK—A condition that can
occur when operating a swept-wing
airplane in the transonic speed range.
A shock wave could form in the root
portion of the wing and cause the
air behind it to separate. This
shock-induced separation causes the
center of pressure to move aft. This,
combined with the increasing amount
of nose down force at higher speeds to
maintain left flight, causes the nose to
"tuck." If not corrected, the airplane
could enter a steep, sometimes
unrecoverable dive.

MAGNETIC COMPASS—A device
for determining direction measured
from magnetic north.

MAIN GEAR—The wheels of an
aircraft's landing gear that supports
the major part of the aircraft's weight.

MANEUVERABILITY—Ability of
an aircraft to change directions along
a flightpath and withstand the stresses
imposed upon it.

MANEUVERING SPEED (VA) —
The maximum speed where full,
abrupt control movement can be used
without overstressing the airframe.

MANIFOLD PRESSURE (MP)—
The absolute pressure of the fuel/air
mixture within the intake manifold,
usually indicated in inches of
mercury.

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
TAKEOFF POWER—The maximum
power an engine is allowed to
develop for a limited period of time;
usually about one minute.

MAXIMUM LANDING
WEIGHT—The greatest weight that
an airplane normally is allowed to
have at landing.

MAXIMUM RAMP WEIGHT—
The total weight of a loaded aircraft,
including all fuel. It is greater than the
takeoff weight due to the fuel that will
be burned during the taxi and runup
operations. Ramp weight may also be
referred to as taxi weight.

MAXIMUM TAKEOFF
WEIGHT—The maximum allowable
weight for takeoff.

MAXIMUM WEIGHT—
The maximum authorized weight of
the aircraft and all of its equipment as
specified in the Type Certificate Data
Sheets (TCDS) for the aircraft.

MAXIMUM ZERO FUEL
WEIGHT (GAMA)—The maximum
weight, exclusive of usable fuel.

MINIMUM CONTROLLABLE
AIRSPEED—An airspeed at which
any further increase in angle of attack,
increase in load factor, or reduction in
power, would result in an immediate
stall.

MINIMUM DRAG SPEED
(L/DMAX)—The point on the total
drag curve where the lift-to-drag ratio
is the greatest. At this speed, total drag
is minimized.

MIXTURE—The ratio of fuel to air
entering the engine's cylinders.

MMO—Maximum operating speed
expressed in terms of a decimal of
mach speed.

MOMENT ARM—The distance
from a datum to the applied force.
MOMENT INDEX (OR INDEX)—
A moment divided by a constant such
as 100, 1,000, or 10,000. The purpose
of using a moment index is to simplify
weight and balance computations of
airplanes where heavy items and long
arms result in large, unmanageable
numbers.

MOMENT—The product of the
weight of an item multiplied by its
arm. Moments are expressed in
pound-inches (lb-in). Total moment is
the weight of the airplane multiplied
by the distance between the datum and
the CG.

MOVABLE SLAT—A movable
auxiliary airfoil on the leading edge of
a wing. It is closed in normal flight but
extends at high angles of attack. This
allows air to continue flowing over the
top of the wing and delays airflow
separation.

MUSHING—A flight condition
caused by slow speed where the
control surfaces are marginally
effective.

N1, N2, N3—Spool speed expressed in
percent rpm. N1 on a turboprop is the
gas producer speed. N1 on a turbofan
or turbojet engine is the fan speed or
low pressure spool speed. N2 is the
high pressure spool speed on engine
with 2 spools and medium pressure
spool on engines with 3 spools with
N3 being the high pressure spool.

NACELLE—
A streamlined enclosure on an aircraft
in which an engine is mounted.
On multiengine propeller-driven
airplanes, the nacelle is normally
mounted on the leading edge of the
wing.

NEGATIVE STATIC
STABILITY—The initial tendency
of an aircraft to continue away from
the original state of equilibrium after
being disturbed.

NEGATIVE TORQUE SENSING
(NTS)— A system in a turboprop
engine that prevents the engine from
being driven by the propeller. The
NTS increases the blade angle when
the propellers try to drive the engine.

NEUTRAL STATIC
STABILITY—The initial tendency
of an aircraft to remain in a new
condition after its equilibrium has
been disturbed.

NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY
(NICAD)— A battery made up of
alkaline secondary cells. The positive
plates are nickel hydroxide, the
negative plates are cadmium
hydroxide, and potassium hydroxide
is used as the electrolyte.

NORMAL CATEGORY—
An airplane that has a seating
configuration, excluding pilot seats,
of nine or less, a maximum
certificated takeoff weight of 12,500
pounds or less, and intended for
nonacrobatic operation.

 

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