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Airplane Flying Handbook
Performance Maneuvers
Lazy Eight

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

At the 45° point, the pitch attitude should be at
maximum and the angle of bank continuing to
increase. Also, at the 45° point, the pitch attitude
should start to decrease slowly toward the horizon and
the 90° reference point. Since the airspeed is still
decreasing, right-rudder pressure will have to be
applied to counteract torque.

As the airplane's nose is being lowered toward the 90°
reference point, the bank should continue to increase.
Due to the decreasing airspeed, a slight amount of
opposite aileron pressure may be required to prevent
the bank from becoming too steep. When the airplane
completes 90° of the turn, the bank should be at the
maximum angle (approximately 30°), the airspeed
should be at its minimum (5 to 10 knots above stall
speed), and the airplane pitch attitude should be
passing through level flight. It is at this time that an
imaginary line, extending from the pilot's eye and
parallel to the longitudinal axis of the airplane, passes
through the 90° reference point.

Lazy eights normally should be performed with no
more than approximately a 30° bank. Steeper banks
may be used, but control touch and technique must be
developed to a much higher degree than when the
maneuver is performed with a shallower bank.

The pilot should not hesitate at this point but should
continue to fly the airplane into a descending turn so
that the airplane's nose describes the same size loop
below the horizon as it did above. As the pilot's
reference line passes through the 90° point, the bank
should be decreased gradually, and the airplane's nose
allowed to continue lowering. When the airplane has
turned 135°, the nose should be in its lowest pitch
attitude. The airspeed will be increasing during this
descending turn, so it will be necessary to gradually
relax rudder and aileron pressure and to
simultaneously raise the nose and roll the wings level.
As this is being accomplished, the pilot should note the
amount of turn remaining and adjust the rate of rollout
and pitch change so that the wings become level and
the original airspeed is attained in level flight just as
the 180° point is reached. Upon returning to the
starting altitude and the 180° point, a climbing turn
should be started immediately in the opposite direction
toward the selected reference points to complete the
second half of the eight in the same manner as the first
half. [Figure 9-5]

Due to the decreasing airspeed, considerable right rudder
pressure is gradually applied to counteract
torque at the top of the eight in both the right and left
turns. The pressure will be greatest at the point of
lowest airspeed.

Lazy eight.
Figure 9-5. Lazy eight.

 

9-7