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Airplane Flying Handbook
Performance Maneuvers

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



Once the bank has been established, the angle of bank
should remain constant until 90° of turn is completed.
Although the degree of bank is fixed during this
climbing turn, it may appear to increase and, in fact,
actually will tend to increase if allowed to do so as the
maneuver continues.

When the turn has progressed 90° from the original
heading, the pilot should begin rolling out of the bank
at a constant rate while maintaining a constant-pitch
attitude. Since the angle of bank will be decreasing
during the rollout, the vertical component of lift will
increase slightly. For this reason, it may be necessary
to release a slight amount of back-elevator pressure in
order to keep the nose of the airplane from rising

As the wings are being leveled at the completion of
180° of turn, the pitch attitude should be noted by
checking the outside references and the attitude
indicator. This pitch attitude should be held
momentarily while the airplane is at the minimum
controllable airspeed. Then the pitch attitude may be
gently reduced to return to straight-and-level
cruise flight.

Since the airspeed is constantly decreasing throughout
the maneuver, the effects of engine torque become
more and more prominent. Therefore, right-rudder
pressure is gradually increased to control yaw and
maintain a constant rate of turn and to keep the airplane
in coordinated flight. The pilot should maintain
coordinated flight by the feel of pressures being
applied on the controls and by the ball instrument of
the turn-and-slip indicator. If coordinated flight is
being maintained, the ball will remain in the center of
the race.

To roll out of a left chandelle, the left aileron must be
lowered to raise the left wing. This creates more drag
than the aileron on the right wing, resulting in a
tendency for the airplane to yaw to the left. With the
low airspeed at this point, torque effect tries to make
the airplane yaw to the left even more. Thus, there are
two forces pulling the airplane's nose to the left—
aileron drag and torque. To maintain coordinated
flight, considerable right-rudder pressure is required
during the rollout to overcome the effects of aileron
drag and torque.

In a chandelle to the right, when control pressure is
applied to begin the rollout, the aileron on the right
wing is lowered. This creates more drag on that wing
and tends to make the airplane yaw to the right. At the

same time, the effect of torque at the lower airspeed is
causing the airplane's nose to yaw to the left. Thus,
aileron drag pulling the nose to the right and torque
pulling to the left, tend to neutralize each other. If
excessive left-rudder pressure is applied, the rollout
will be uncoordinated.

The rollout to the left can usually be accomplished
with very little left rudder, since the effects of aileron
drag and torque tend to neutralize each other.
Releasing some right rudder, which has been applied
to correct for torque, will normally give the same effect
as applying left-rudder pressure. When the wings
become level and the ailerons are neutralized, the
aileron drag disappears. Because of the low airspeed
and high power, the effects of torque become the more
prominent force and must continue to be controlled
with rudder pressure.

A rollout to the left is accomplished mainly by
applying aileron pressure. During the rollout,
right-rudder pressure should be gradually released, and
left rudder applied only as necessary to maintain
coordination. Even when the wings are level and
aileron pressure is released, right-rudder pressure must
be held to counteract torque and hold the nose straight.

Common errors in the performance of chandelles are:
• Failure to adequately clear the area.
• Too shallow an initial bank, resulting in a stall.
• Too steep an initial bank, resulting in failure to
gain maximum performance.
• Allowing the actual bank to increase after establishing
initial bank angle.
• Failure to start the recovery at the 90° point in
the turn.
• Allowing the pitch attitude to increase as the
bank is rolled out during the second 90° of turn.
• Removing all of the bank before the 180° point
is reached.
• Nose low on recovery, resulting in too much
• Control roughness.
• Poor coordination (slipping or skidding).
• Stalling at any point during the maneuver.
• Execution of a steep turn instead of a climbing
• Failure to scan for other aircraft.
• Attempting to perform the maneuver by
instrument reference rather than visual reference.