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Airplane Flying Handbook
Approaches and Landings

Faulty Approaches And Landings

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

If the pilot has not taken adequate corrective action to
avoid drift during a crosswind landing, the main
wheels' tire tread offers resistance to the airplane's
sideward movement in respect to the ground.
Consequently, any sidewise velocity of the airplane is
abruptly decelerated, with the result that the inertia
force is as shown in figure 8-38. This creates a moment
around the main wheel when it contacts the ground,
tending to overturn or tip the airplane. If the windward
wingtip is raised by the action of this moment, all the
weight and shock of landing will be borne by one main
wheel. This could cause structural damage.

Drifting during touchdown.
Figure 8-38. Drifting during touchdown.

Not only are the same factors present that are attempting
to raise a wing, but the crosswind is also acting on
the fuselage surface behind the main wheels, tending
to yaw (weathervane) the airplane into the wind. This
often results in a ground loop.

GROUND LOOP
A ground loop is an uncontrolled turn during ground
operation that may occur while taxiing or taking off,
but especially during the after-landing roll. Drift or
weathervaning does not always cause a ground loop,
although these things may cause the initial swerve.
Careless use of the rudder, an uneven ground surface,
or a soft spot that retards one main wheel of the airplane
may also cause a swerve. In any case, the initial
swerve tends to make the airplane ground loop,
whether it is a tailwheel-type or nosewheel-type.
[Figure 8-39]

Nosewheel-type airplanes are somewhat less prone to
ground loop than tailwheel-type airplanes. Since the
center of gravity (CG) is located forward of the main
landing gear on these airplanes, any time a swerve
develops, centrifugal force acting on the CG will tend
to stop the swerving action.

If the airplane touches down while drifting or in a crab,
the pilot should apply aileron toward the high wing and
stop the swerve with the rudder. Brakes should be used
to correct for turns or swerves only when the rudder is
inadequate. The pilot must exercise caution when
applying corrective brake action because it is very easy
to overcontrol and aggravate the situation.

Start of a ground loop.
Figure 8-39. Start of a ground loop.

If brakes are used, sufficient brake should be applied
on the low-wing wheel (outside of the turn) to stop the
swerve. When the wings are approximately level, the
new direction must be maintained until the airplane has
slowed to taxi speed or has stopped.

In nosewheel airplanes, a ground loop is almost always
a result of wheelbarrowing. The pilot must be aware that
even though the nosewheel-type airplane is less prone
than the tailwheel-type airplane, virtually every type of
airplane, including large multiengine airplanes, can be
made to ground loop when sufficiently mishandled.

 

8-33