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Airplane Flying Handbook
Approaches and Landings

Faulty Approaches And Landings

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

BALLOONING DURING ROUNDOUT
If the pilot misjudges the rate of sink during a landing
and thinks the airplane is descending faster than it
should, there is a tendency to increase the pitch attitude
and angle of attack too rapidly. This not only
stops the descent, but actually starts the airplane
climbing. This climbing during the roundout is
known as ballooning. [Figure 8-35] Ballooning can
be dangerous because the height above the ground is
increasing and the airplane may be rapidly
approaching a stalled condition. The altitude gained
in each instance will depend on the airspeed or the
speed with which the pitch attitude is increased.

When ballooning is slight, a constant landing attitude
should be held and the airplane allowed to gradually
decelerate and settle onto the runway. Depending on
the severity of ballooning, the use of throttle may be
helpful in cushioning the landing. By adding power,
thrust can be increased to keep the airspeed from
decelerating too rapidly and the wings from suddenly
losing lift, but throttle must be closed immediately
after touchdown. Remember that torque will be created
as power is applied; therefore, it will be necessary
to use rudder pressure to keep the airplane straight as it
settles onto the runway.

When ballooning is excessive, it is best to EXECUTE
A GO-AROUND IMMEDIATELY; DO NOT
ATTEMPT TO SALVAGE THE LANDING. Power
must be applied before the airplane enters a stalled
condition.

The pilot must be extremely cautious of ballooning
when there is a crosswind present because the crosswind
correction may be inadvertently released or it
may become inadequate. Because of the lower airspeed
after ballooning, the crosswind affects the airplane
more. Consequently, the wing will have to be lowered
even further to compensate for the increased drift. It
is imperative that the pilot makes certain that the
appropriate wing is down and that directional control
is maintained with opposite rudder. If there is any
doubt, or the airplane starts to drift, EXECUTE A
GO-AROUND.

BOUNCING DURING TOUCHDOWN
When the airplane contacts the ground with a sharp
impact as the result of an improper attitude or an
excessive rate of sink, it tends to bounce back into the
air. Though the airplane's tires and shock struts
provide some springing action, the airplane does not
bounce like a rubber ball. Instead, it rebounds into
the air because the wing's angle of attack was
abruptly increased, producing a sudden addition of
lift. [Figure 8-36]

The abrupt change in angle of attack is the result of
inertia instantly forcing the airplane's tail downward
when the main wheels contact the ground sharply. The
severity of the bounce depends on the airspeed at the
moment of contact and the degree to which the angle
of attack or pitch attitude was increased.

Ballooning during roundout.
Figure 8-35. Ballooning during roundout.

 

8-30