| Home | Privacy | Contact |

Airplane Flying Handbook
Approaches and Landings

Faulty Approaches And Landings

| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



Rounding out too high.
Figure 8-33. Rounding out too high.

Starting the roundout too late or pulling the elevator
control back too rapidly to prevent the airplane from
touching down prematurely can impose a heavy load
factor on the wing and cause an accelerated stall.
Suddenly increasing the angle of attack and stalling the
airplane during a roundout is a dangerous situation
since it may cause the airplane to land extremely hard
on the main landing gear, and then bounce back into
the air. As the airplane contacts the ground, the tail will
be forced down very rapidly by the back-elevator pressure
and by inertia acting downward on the tail.

Recovery from this situation requires prompt and
positive application of power prior to occurrence of
the stall. This may be followed by a normal landing if
sufficient runway is available—otherwise the pilot
should EXECUTE A GO-AROUND immediately.
If the roundout is late, the nosewheel may strike the
runway first, causing the nose to bounce upward. No
attempt should be made to force the airplane back onto
the ground; a GO-AROUND should be executed

If the airspeed on final approach is excessive, it will
usually result in the airplane floating. [Figure 8-34]
Before touchdown can be made, the airplane may be
well past the desired landing point and the available
runway may be insufficient. When diving an airplane
on final approach to land at the proper point, there will
be an appreciable increase in airspeed. The proper
touchdown attitude cannot be established without producing
an excessive angle of attack and lift. This will
cause the airplane to gain altitude or balloon.

Any time the airplane floats, judgment of speed,
height, and rate of sink must be especially acute. The
pilot must smoothly and gradually adjust the pitch attitude
as the airplane decelerates to touchdown speed
and starts to settle, so the proper landing attitude is
attained at the moment of touchdown. The slightest
error in judgment and timing will result in either ballooning
or bouncing.

The recovery from floating will depend on the amount
of floating and the effect of any crosswind, as well as
the amount of runway remaining. Since prolonged
floating utilizes considerable runway length, it should
be avoided especially on short runways or in strong
crosswinds. If a landing cannot be made on the first
third of the runway, or the airplane drifts sideways, the
pilot should EXECUTE A GO-AROUND.

Floating during roundout.
Figure 8-34. Floating during roundout.