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Airplane Flying Handbook
Approaches and Landings

Faulty Approaches And Landings

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Change in glidepath and increase in descent rate for high final approach.
Figure 8-32. Change in glidepath and increase in descent rate for high final approach.

SLOW FINAL APPROACH
When the airplane is flown at a slower-than-normal
airspeed on the final approach, the pilot's judgment of
the rate of sink (descent) and the height of roundout
will be difficult. During an excessively slow approach,
the wing is operating near the critical angle of attack
and, depending on the pitch attitude changes and control
usage, the airplane may stall or sink rapidly, contacting
the ground with a hard impact.

Whenever a slow-speed approach is noted, the pilot
should apply power to accelerate the airplane and
increase the lift to reduce the sink rate and to prevent
a stall. This should be done while still at a high
enough altitude to reestablish the correct approach
airspeed and attitude. If too slow and too low, it is
best to EXECUTE A GO-AROUND.

USE OF POWER
Power can be used effectively during the approach and
roundout to compensate for errors in judgment. Power
can be added to accelerate the airplane to increase lift
without increasing the angle of attack; thus, the descent
can be slowed to an acceptable rate. If the proper
landing attitude has been attained and the airplane is
only slightly high, the landing attitude should be
held constant and sufficient power applied to help
ease the airplane onto the ground. After the airplane
has touched down, it will be necessary to close the
throttle so the additional thrust and lift will be
removed and the airplane will stay on the ground.

HIGH ROUNDOUT
Sometimes when the airplane appears to temporarily
stop moving downward, the roundout has been made
too rapidly and the airplane is flying level, too high
above the runway. Continuing the roundout would
further reduce the airspeed, resulting in an increase
in angle of attack to the critical angle. This would
result in the airplane stalling and dropping hard onto
the runway. To prevent this, the pitch attitude should
be held constant until the airplane decelerates enough
to again start descending. Then the roundout can be
continued to establish the proper landing attitude.
This procedure should only be used when there is
adequate airspeed. It may be necessary to add a slight
amount of power to keep the airspeed from decreasing
excessively and to avoid losing lift too rapidly.

Although back-elevator pressure may be relaxed
slightly, the nose should not be lowered any perceptible
amount to make the airplane descend when fairly
close to the runway unless some power is added
momentarily. The momentary decrease in lift that
would result from lowering the nose and decreasing
the angle of attack may be so great that the airplane
might contact the ground with the nosewheel first,
which could collapse.

When the proper landing attitude is attained, the airplane
is approaching a stall because the airspeed is
decreasing and the critical angle of attack is being
approached, even though the pitch attitude is no longer
being increased. [Figure 8-33]

It is recommended that a GO-AROUND be executed
any time it appears the nose must be lowered significantly
or that the landing is in any other way uncertain.

 

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