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Airplane Flying Handbook
Approaches and Landings

Faulty Approaches And Landings

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

FAULTY APPROACHES AND LANDINGS

LOW FINAL APPROACH
When the base leg is too low, insufficient power is used,
landing flaps are extended prematurely, or the velocity of
the wind is misjudged, sufficient altitude may be lost,
which will cause the airplane to be well below the proper
final approach path. In such a situation, the pilot would
have to apply considerable power to fly the airplane (at
an excessively low altitude) up to the runway threshold.
When it is realized the runway will not be reached
unless appropriate action is taken, power must be
applied immediately to maintain the airspeed while the
pitch attitude is raised to increase lift and stop the
descent. When the proper approach path has been
intercepted, the correct approach attitude should be
reestablished and the power reduced and a stabilized
approach maintained. [Figure 8-31] DO NOT increase
the pitch attitude without increasing the power, since
the airplane will decelerate rapidly and may approach
the critical angle of attack and stall. DO NOT retract
the flaps; this will suddenly decrease lift and cause the
airplane to sink more rapidly. If there is any doubt
about the approach being safely completed, it is advisable
to EXECUTE AN IMMEDIATE GO-AROUND.

HIGH FINAL APPROACH
When the final approach is too high, lower the flaps as
required. Further reduction in power may be necessary,
while lowering the nose simultaneously to maintain
approach airspeed and steepen the approach path.
[Figure 8-32] When the proper approach path has been
intercepted, adjust the power as required to maintain a
stabilized approach. When steepening the approach
path, however, care must be taken that the descent does
not result in an excessively high sink rate. If a high sink
rate is continued close to the surface, it may be difficult
to slow to a proper rate prior to ground contact. Any
sink rate in excess of 800 - 1,000 feet per minute is considered
excessive. A go-around should be initiated if
the sink rate becomes excessive.

Right and wrong methods of correction for low final approach.
Figure 8-31. Right and wrong methods of correction for low final approach.

 

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