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Airplane Flying Handbook
Approaches and Landings
gency Approaches And Landings (Simulated)

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



However, if the student realizes during the approach
that a poor field has been selected—one that would
obviously result in disaster if a landing were to be
made—and there is a more advantageous field within
gliding distance, a change to the better field should be
permitted. The hazards involved in these last-minute
decisions, such as excessive maneuvering at very low
altitudes, should be thoroughly explained by the

Slipping the airplane, using flaps, varying the position
of the base leg, and varying the turn onto final
approach should be stressed as ways of correcting for
misjudgment of altitude and glide angle.
Eagerness to get down is one of the most common
faults of inexperienced pilots during simulated emergency
landings. In giving way to this, they forget about
speed and arrive at the edge of the field with too much
speed to permit a safe landing. Too much speed may be
just as dangerous as too little; it results in excessive
floating and overshooting the desired landing spot. It
should be impressed on the students that they cannot
dive at a field and expect to land on it.

During all simulated emergency landings, the engine
should be kept warm and cleared. During a simulated
emergency landing, either the instructor or the student
should have complete control of the throttle. There
should be no doubt as to who has control since many
near accidents have occurred from such misunderstandings.

Every simulated emergency landing approach should
be terminated as soon as it can be determined whether
a safe landing could have been made. In no case
should it be continued to a point where it creates an
undue hazard or an annoyance to persons or property
on the ground.

In addition to flying the airplane from the point of
simulated engine failure to where a reasonable safe
landing could be made, the student should also be
taught certain emergency cockpit procedures. The
habit of performing these cockpit procedures should
be developed to such an extent that, when an engine
failure actually occurs, the student will check the critical

items that would be necessary to get the engine
operating again while selecting a field and planning
an approach. Combining the two operations—
accomplishing emergency procedures and planning
and flying the approach—will be difficult for the student
during the early training in emergency landings.

There are definite steps and procedures to be followed
in a simulated emergency landing. Although they may
differ somewhat from the procedures used in an actual
emergency, they should be learned thoroughly by the
student, and each step called out to the instructor. The
use of a checklist is strongly recommended. Most
airplane manufacturers provide a checklist of the
appropriate items. [Figure 8-30]

Critical items to be checked should include the position
of the fuel tank selector, the quantity of fuel in the
tank selected, the fuel pressure gauge to see if the electric
fuel pump is needed, the position of the mixture
control, the position of the magneto switch, and the use
of carburetor heat. Many actual emergency landings
have been made and later found to be the result of the
fuel selector valve being positioned to an empty tank
while the other tank had plenty of fuel. It may be wise
to change the position of the fuel selector valve even
though the fuel gauge indicates fuel in all tanks
because fuel gauges can be inaccurate. Many actual
emergency landings could have been prevented if
the pilots had developed the habit of checking these
critical items during flight training to the extent that
it carried over into later flying.

Instruction in emergency procedures should not be limited
to simulated emergency landings caused by power
failures. Other emergencies associated with the operation
of the airplane should be explained, demonstrated, and
practiced if practicable. Among these emergencies are
such occurrences as fire in flight, electrical or hydraulic
system malfunctions, unexpected severe weather
conditions, engine overheating, imminent fuel
exhaustion, and the emergency operation of airplane
systems and equipment.

Sample emergency checklist.
Figure 8-30. Sample emergency checklist.