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Airplane Flying Handbook
Approaches and Landings
Turbulent Air Approach and Landing

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures




Power-on approaches at an airspeed slightly above the
normal approach speed should be used for landing in
turbulent air. This provides for more positive control
of the airplane when strong horizontal wind gusts, or
up and down drafts, are experienced. Like other
power-on approaches (when the pilot can vary the
amount of power), a coordinated combination of both
pitch and power adjustments is usually required. As in
most other landing approaches, the proper approach
attitude and airspeed require a minimum roundout and
should result in little or no floating during the landing.
To maintain good control, the approach in turbulent air
with gusty crosswind may require the use of partial
wing flaps. With less than full flaps, the airplane will
be in a higher pitch attitude. Thus, it will require less
of a pitch change to establish the landing attitude, and
the touchdown will be at a higher airspeed to ensure
more positive control. The speed should not be so
excessive that the airplane will float past the desired
landing area.
One procedure is to use the normal approach speed
plus one-half of the wind gust factors. If the normal
speed is 70 knots, and the wind gusts increase 15 knots,
airspeed of 77 knots is appropriate. In any case, the airspeed
and the amount of flaps should be as the airplane
manufacturer recommends.

An adequate amount of power should be used to maintain
the proper airspeed and descent path throughout
the approach, and the throttle retarded to idling position
only after the main wheels contact the landing surface.
Care must be exercised in closing the throttle before the
pilot is ready for touchdown. In this situation, the sudden
or premature closing of the throttle may cause a sudden
increase in the descent rate that could result in a hard
Landings from power approaches in turbulence should
be such that the touchdown is made with the airplane
in approximately level flight attitude. The pitch attitude
at touchdown should be only enough to prevent the
nosewheel from contacting the surface before the main
wheels have touched the surface. After touchdown, the
pilot should avoid the tendency to apply forward pressure
on the yoke as this may result in wheelbarrowing
and possible loss of control. The airplane should be
allowed to decelerate normally, assisted by careful use
of wheel brakes. Heavy braking should be avoided until
the wings are devoid of lift and the airplane's full
weight is resting on the landing gear.

Landing over an obstacle.
Figure 8-20. Landing over an obstacle.