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Airplane Flying Handbook
Approaches and Landings
Crosswind Approach and Landing

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

While the airplane is decelerating during the after landing
roll, more and more aileron is applied to keep
the upwind wing from rising. Since the airplane is
slowing down, there is less airflow around the ailerons
and they become less effective. At the same time, the
relative wind is becoming more of a crosswind and
exerting a greater lifting force on the upwind wing.
When the airplane is coming to a stop, the aileron control
must be held fully toward the wind.

MAXIMUM SAFE CROSSWIND VELOCITIES
Takeoffs and landings in certain crosswind conditions
are inadvisable or even dangerous. [Figure 8-18] If the
crosswind is great enough to warrant an extreme drift
correction, a hazardous landing condition may result.
Therefore, the takeoff and landing capabilities with
respect to the reported surface wind conditions and the
available landing directions must be considered.

Before an airplane is type certificated by the Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA), it must be flight tested
to meet certain requirements. Among these is the
demonstration of being satisfactorily controllable with
no exceptional degree of skill or alertness on the part
of the pilot in 90° crosswinds up to a velocity equal to
0.2 VSO. This means a windspeed of two-tenths of the
airplane's stalling speed with power off and landing
gear/flaps down. Regulations require that the demonstrated
crosswind velocity be included on a placard in
airplanes certificated after May 3, 1962.

Crosswind chart.
Figure 8-18. Crosswind chart.

The headwind component and the crosswind component
for a given situation can be determined by reference
to a crosswind component chart. [Figure 8-19] It is
imperative that pilots determine the maximum
crosswind component of each airplane they fly, and
avoid operations in wind conditions that exceed the
capability of the airplane.

Crosswind component chart.
Figure 8-19. Crosswind component chart.

Common errors in the performance of crosswind
approaches and landings are:
• Attempting to land in crosswinds that exceed the
airplane's maximum demonstrated crosswind
component.
• Inadequate compensation for wind drift on the
turn from base leg to final approach, resulting in
undershooting or overshooting.
• Inadequate compensation for wind drift on final
approach.
• Unstabilized approach.
• Failure to compensate for increased drag during
sideslip resulting in excessive sink rate and/or
too low an airspeed.
• Touchdown while drifting.
• Excessive airspeed on touchdown.
• Failure to apply appropriate flight control inputs
during rollout.
• Failure to maintain direction control on rollout.
• Excessive braking.

 

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