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Airplane Flying Handbook
Approaches and Landings
Crosswind Approach and Landing

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

The wing-low (sideslip) method will compensate for a
crosswind from any angle, but more important, it
enables the pilot to simultaneously keep the airplane's
ground track and longitudinal axis aligned with the
runway centerline throughout the final approach,
roundout, touchdown, and after-landing roll. This
prevents the airplane from touching down in a sideward
motion and imposing damaging side loads on
the landing gear.

To use the wing-low method, the pilot aligns the airplane's
heading with the centerline of the runway,
notes the rate and direction of drift, and then promptly
applies drift correction by lowering the upwind wing.
[Figure 8-16] The amount the wing must be lowered
depends on the rate of drift. When the wing is lowered,
the airplane will tend to turn in that direction. It is then

Sideslip approach.
Figure 8-16. Sideslip approach.

necessary to simultaneously apply sufficient opposite
rudder pressure to prevent the turn and keep the airplane's
longitudinal axis aligned with the runway. In
other words, the drift is controlled with aileron, and
the heading with rudder. The airplane will now be
sideslipping into the wind just enough that both the
resultant flightpath and the ground track are aligned
with the runway. If the crosswind diminishes, this
crosswind correction is reduced accordingly, or the
airplane will begin slipping away from the desired
approach path. [Figure 8-17]

To correct for strong crosswind, the slip into the wind
is increased by lowering the upwind wing a considerable
amount. As a consequence, this will result in a
greater tendency of the airplane to turn. Since turning
is not desired, considerable opposite rudder must be
applied to keep the airplane's longitudinal axis aligned
with the runway. In some airplanes, there may not be
sufficient rudder travel available to compensate for the
strong turning tendency caused by the steep bank. If
the required bank is such that full opposite rudder will
not prevent a turn, the wind is too strong to safely land
the airplane on that particular runway with those wind
conditions. Since the airplane's capability will be
exceeded, it is imperative that the landing be made on
a more favorable runway either at that airport or at an
alternate airport.

Flaps can and should be used during most approaches
since they tend to have a stabilizing effect on the airplane.
The degree to which flaps should be extended
will vary with the airplane's handling characteristics,
as well as the wind velocity.

Crosswind approach and landing.
Figure 8-17. Crosswind approach and landing.

 

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