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Airplane Flying Handbook
Approaches and Landings
Go-Arounds (Rejected Landings)

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

POWER
Power is the pilot's first concern. The instant the
pilot decides to go around, full or maximum allowable
takeoff power must be applied smoothly and
without hesitation, and held until flying speed and
controllability are restored. Applying only partial
power in a go-around is never appropriate. The pilot
must be aware of the degree of inertia that must be
overcome, before an airplane that is settling towards
the ground can regain sufficient airspeed to become
fully controllable and capable of turning safely or
climbing. The application of power should be smooth
as well as positive. Abrupt movements of the throttle
in some airplanes will cause the engine to falter.
Carburetor heat should be turned off for maximum
power.

ATTITUDE
Attitude is always critical when close to the ground,
and when power is added, a deliberate effort on the part
of the pilot will be required to keep the nose from
pitching up prematurely. The airplane executing a goaround
must be maintained in an attitude that permits a
buildup of airspeed well beyond the stall point before
any effort is made to gain altitude, or to execute a turn.
Raising the nose too early may produce a stall from
which the airplane could not be recovered if the
go-around is performed at a low altitude.

A concern for quickly regaining altitude during a goaround
produces a natural tendency to pull the nose up.
The pilot executing a go-around must accept the fact
that an airplane will not climb until it can fly, and it
will not fly below stall speed. In some circumstances,
it may be desirable to lower the nose briefly to gain
airspeed. As soon as the appropriate climb airspeed and
pitch attitude are attained, the pilot should "rough
trim" the airplane to relieve any adverse control pressures.
Later, more precise trim adjustments can be
made when flight conditions have stabilized.

CONFIGURATION
In cleaning up the airplane during the go-around, the
pilot should be concerned first with flaps and secondly
with the landing gear (if retractable). When the decision
is made to perform a go-around, takeoff power

should be applied immediately and the pitch attitude
changed so as to slow or stop the descent. After the
descent has been stopped, the landing flaps may be
partially retracted or placed in the takeoff position as
recommended by the manufacturer. Caution must be
used, however, in retracting the flaps. Depending on
the airplane's altitude and airspeed, it may be wise to
retract the flaps intermittently in small increments to
allow time for the airplane to accelerate progressively
as they are being raised. Asudden and complete retraction
of the flaps could cause a loss of lift resulting in
the airplane settling into the ground. [Figure 8-14]

Unless otherwise specified in the AFM/POH, it is generally
recommended that the flaps be retracted (at least
partially) before retracting the landing gear—for two
reasons. First, on most airplanes full flaps produce
more drag than the landing gear; and second, in case
the airplane should inadvertently touch down as the
go-around is initiated, it is most desirable to have the
landing gear in the down-and-locked position. After a
positive rate of climb is established, the landing gear
can be retracted.

When takeoff power is applied, it will usually be necessary
to hold considerable pressure on the controls to
maintain straight flight and a safe climb attitude. Since
the airplane has been trimmed for the approach (a low
power and low airspeed condition), application of
maximum allowable power will require considerable
control pressure to maintain a climb pitch attitude. The
addition of power will tend to raise the airplane's nose
suddenly and veer to the left. Forward elevator pressure
must be anticipated and applied to hold the nose in a
safe climb attitude. Right rudder pressure must be
increased to counteract torque and P-factor, and to keep
the nose straight. The airplane must be held in the proper
flight attitude regardless of the amount of control
pressure that is required. Trim should be used to
relieve adverse control pressures and assist the pilot in
maintaining a proper pitch attitude. On airplanes that
produce high control pressures when using maximum
power on go-arounds, pilots should use caution when
reaching for the flap handle. Airplane control may
become critical during this high workload phase.

Go-around procedure.
Figure 8-14. Go-around procedure.

 

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