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Airplane Flying Handbook
Approaches and Landings
Go-Arounds (Rejected Landings)

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



A "forward slip" is one in which the airplane's
direction of motion continues the same as before the
slip was begun. Assuming the airplane is originally
in straight flight, the wing on the side toward which
the slip is to be made should be lowered by use of the
ailerons. Simultaneously, the airplane's nose must be
yawed in the opposite direction by applying opposite
rudder so that the airplane's longitudinal axis is at an
angle to its original flightpath. [Figure 8-13] The
degree to which the nose is yawed in the opposite
direction from the bank should be such that the
original ground track is maintained. In a forward slip,
the amount of slip, and therefore the sink rate, is
determined by the bank angle. The steeper the bank—
the steeper the descent.

Forward slip.
Figure 8-13. Forward slip.

In most light airplanes, the steepness of a slip is
limited by the amount of rudder travel available. In
both sideslips and forward slips, the point may be
reached where full rudder is required to maintain
heading even though the ailerons are capable of further
steepening the bank angle. This is the practical slip
limit, because any additional bank would cause the
airplane to turn even though full opposite rudder is
being applied. If there is a need to descend more
rapidly even though the practical slip limit has been
reached, lowering the nose will not only increase the
sink rate but will also increase airspeed. The increase
in airspeed increases rudder effectiveness permitting
a steeper slip. Conversely, when the nose is raised,
rudder effectiveness decreases and the bank angle must
be reduced.

Discontinuing a slip is accomplished by leveling the
wings and simultaneously releasing the rudder
pressure while readjusting the pitch attitude to the
normal glide attitude. If the pressure on the rudder is
released abruptly, the nose will swing too quickly into
line and the airplane will tend to acquire excess speed.

Because of the location of the pitot tube and static
vents, airspeed indicators in some airplanes may have
considerable error when the airplane is in a slip. The
pilot must be aware of this possibility and recognize a
properly performed slip by the attitude of the airplane,
the sound of the airflow, and the feel of the flight
controls. Unlike skids, however, if an airplane in a slip
is made to stall, it displays very little of the yawing
tendency that causes a skidding stall to develop into a
spin. The airplane in a slip may do little more than tend
to roll into a wings level attitude. In fact, in some
airplanes stall characteristics may even be improved.


Whenever landing conditions are not satisfactory, a
go-around is warranted. There are many factors that
can contribute to unsatisfactory landing conditions.
Situations such as air traffic control requirements,
unexpected appearance of hazards on the runway,
overtaking another airplane, wind shear,
wake turbulence, mechanical failure and/or an
unstabilized approach are all examples of reasons to
discontinue a landing approach and make another
approach under more favorable conditions. The
assumption that an aborted landing is invariably the
consequence of a poor approach, which in turn is due
to insufficient experience or skill, is a fallacy. The
go-around is not strictly an emergency procedure. It
is a normal maneuver that may at times be used in an
emergency situation. Like any other normal maneuver,
the go-around must be practiced and perfected. The flight
instructor should emphasize early on, and the student
pilot should be made to understand, that the go-around
maneuver is an alternative to any approach
and/or landing.

Although the need to discontinue a landing may arise
at any point in the landing process, the most critical
go-around will be one started when very close to the
ground. Therefore, the earlier a condition that warrants a
go-around is recognized, the safer the go-around/rejected
landing will be. The go-around maneuver is not
inherently dangerous in itself. It becomes dangerous
only when delayed unduly or executed improperly.
Delay in initiating the go-around normally stems from
two sources: (1) landing expectancy, or set—the
anticipatory belief that conditions are not as
threatening as they are and that the approach will
surely be terminated with a safe landing, and (2)
pride—the mistaken belief that the act of going around
is an admission of failure—failure to execute the
approach properly. The improper execution of the goaround
maneuver stems from a lack of familiarity with
the three cardinal principles of the procedure: power,
attitude, and configuration.