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Airplane Flying Handbook
Ground Reference Maneuvers
Turns Around A Point

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures




Turns around a point, as a training maneuver, is a
logical extension of the principles involved in the
performance of S-turns across a road. Its purposes as
a training maneuver are:
• To further perfect turning technique.
• To perfect the ability to subconsciously control
the airplane while dividing attention between the
flightpath and ground references.
• To teach the student that the radius of a turn is a
distance which is affected by the degree of bank
used when turning with relation to a definite
• To develop a keen perception of altitude.
• To perfect the ability to correct for wind drift
while in turns.

In turns around a point, the airplane is flown in two or
more complete circles of uniform radii or distance
from a prominent ground reference point using a maximum
bank of approximately 45° while maintaining a
constant altitude.

The factors and principles of drift correction that are
involved in S-turns are also applicable in this maneuver.
As in other ground track maneuvers, a constant
radius around a point will, if any wind exists, require a

constantly changing angle of bank and angles of wind
correction. The closer the airplane is to a direct downwind
heading where the groundspeed is greatest, the
steeper the bank and the faster the rate of turn required
to establish the proper wind correction angle. The
more nearly it is to a direct upwind heading where the
groundspeed is least, the shallower the bank and the
slower the rate of turn required to establish the proper
wind correction angle. It follows, then, that throughout
the maneuver the bank and rate of turn must be
gradually varied in proportion to the groundspeed.

The point selected for turns around a point should
be prominent, easily distinguished by the pilot, and
yet small enough to present precise reference.
[Figure 6-6] Isolated trees, crossroads, or other similar
small landmarks are usually suitable.

To enter turns around a point, the airplane should be
flown on a downwind heading to one side of the
selected point at a distance equal to the desired radius
of turn. In a high-wing airplane, the distance from the
point must permit the pilot to see the point throughout
the maneuver even with the wing lowered in a bank. If
the radius is too large, the lowered wing will block the
pilot's view of the point.

Turns around a point.
Figure 6-6.Turns around a point.