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Airplane Flying Handbook
Ground Reference Maneuvers
Eights On Pylons (Pylon Eights)

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



Effect of different altitudes on pivotal altitude.
Figure 6-13. Effect of different altitudes on pivotal altitude.

For uniformity, the eight is usually begun by flying
diagonally crosswind between the pylons to a point
downwind from the first pylon so that the first turn
can be made into the wind. As the airplane
approaches a position where the pylon appears to be
just ahead of the wingtip, the turn should be started
by lowering the upwind wing to place the pilot's line
of sight reference on the pylon. As the turn is continued,
the line of sight reference can be held on the
pylon by gradually increasing the bank. The reference
line should appear to pivot on the pylon. As the airplane
heads into the wind, the groundspeed
decreases; consequently, the pivotal altitude is lower
and the airplane must descend to hold the reference
line on the pylon. As the turn progresses on the
upwind side of the pylon, the wind becomes more of
a crosswind. Since a constant distance from the pylon
is not required on this maneuver, no correction to
counteract drifting should be applied during the turns.

If the reference line appears to move ahead of the
pylon, the pilot should increase altitude. If the reference
line appears to move behind the pylon, the pilot
should decrease altitude. Varying rudder pressure to
yaw the airplane and force the wing and reference
line forward or backward to the pylon is a dangerous
technique and must not be attempted.

As the airplane turns toward a downwind heading,
the rollout from the turn should be started to allow
the airplane to proceed diagonally to a point on the
downwind side of the second pylon. The rollout
must be completed in the proper wind correction
angle to correct for wind drift, so that the airplane
will arrive at a point downwind from the second
pylon the same distance it was from the first pylon
at the beginning of the maneuver.