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Airplane Flying Handbook
Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



Recovery from power-off stalls should also be
practiced from shallow banked turns to simulate an
inadvertent stall during a turn from base leg to final
approach. During the practice of these stalls, care
should be taken that the turn continues at a uniform
rate until the complete stall occurs. If the power-off
turn is not properly coordinated while approaching the
stall, wallowing may result when the stall occurs. If the
airplane is in a slip, the outer wing may stall first and
whip downward abruptly. This does not affect the
recovery procedure in any way; the angle of attack
must be reduced, the heading maintained, and the
wings leveled by coordinated use of the controls. In
the practice of turning stalls, no attempt should be
made to stall the airplane on a predetermined heading.
However, to simulate a turn from base to final
approach, the stall normally should be made to occur
within a heading change of approximately 90°.

After the stall occurs, the recovery should be made
straight ahead with minimum loss of altitude, and
accomplished in accordance with the recovery
procedure discussed earlier.

Recoveries from power-off stalls should be
accomplished both with, and without, the addition of
power, and may be initiated either just after the stall
occurs, or after the nose has pitched down through the
level flight attitude.

Power-on stall recoveries are practiced from straight
climbs, and climbing turns with 15 to 20° banks, to
simulate an accidental stall occurring during takeoffs
and climbs. Airplanes equipped with flaps and/or
retractable landing gear should normally be in the
takeoff configuration; however, power-on stalls should
also be practiced with the airplane in a clean
configuration (flaps and/or gear retracted) as in
departure and normal climbs.

After establishing the takeoff or climb configuration,
the airplane should be slowed to the normal lift-off
speed while clearing the area for other air traffic.
When the desired speed is attained, the power should
be set at takeoff power for the takeoff stall or the
recommended climb power for the departure stall
while establishing a climb attitude. The purpose of
reducing the airspeed to lift-off airspeed before the
throttle is advanced to the recommended setting is to
avoid an excessively steep nose-up attitude for a long
period before the airplane stalls.

After the climb attitude is established, the nose is then
brought smoothly upward to an attitude obviously
impossible for the airplane to maintain and is held at
that attitude until the full stall occurs. In most
airplanes, after attaining the stalling attitude, the
elevator control must be moved progressively further
back as the airspeed decreases until, at the full stall, it
will have reached its limit and cannot be moved back
any farther.

Power-on stall.
Figure 4-6. Power-on stall.