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Airplane Flying Handbook
Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Stalls

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

APPROACHES TO STALLS (IMMINENT
STALLS)—POWER-ON OR POWER-OFF

An imminent stall is one in which the airplane is
approaching a stall but is not allowed to completely stall.
This stall maneuver is primarily for practice in
retaining (or regaining) full control of the airplane
immediately upon recognizing that it is almost in a stall
or that a stall is likely to occur if timely preventive
action is not taken.

The practice of these stalls is of particular value in
developing the pilot's sense of feel for executing
maneuvers in which maximum airplane performance
is required. These maneuvers require flight with the
airplane approaching a stall, and recovery initiated
before a stall occurs. As in all maneuvers that involve
significant changes in altitude or direction, the pilot
must ensure that the area is clear of other air traffic
before executing the maneuver.

These stalls may be entered and performed in the
attitudes and with the same configuration of the basic
full stalls or other maneuvers described in this chapter.
However, instead of allowing a complete stall, when
the first buffeting or decay of control effectiveness is
noted, the angle of attack must be reduced immediately
by releasing the back-elevator pressure and applying
whatever additional power is necessary. Since the
airplane will not be completely stalled, the pitch
attitude needs to be decreased only to a point where
minimum controllable airspeed is attained or until
adequate control effectiveness is regained.

The pilot must promptly recognize the indication of a
stall and take timely, positive control action to prevent
a full stall. Performance is unsatisfactory if a full stall
occurs, if an excessively low pitch attitude is attained,
or if the pilot fails to take timely action to avoid
excessive airspeed, excessive loss of altitude, or a spin.

FULL STALLS POWER-OFF
The practice of power-off stalls is usually performed
with normal landing approach conditions in simulation
of an accidental stall occurring during landing
approaches. Airplanes equipped with flaps and/or
retractable landing gear should be in the landing
configuration. Airspeed in excess of the normal
approach speed should not be carried into a stall entry
since it could result in an abnormally nose-high
attitude. Before executing these practice stalls, the
pilot must be sure the area is clear of other air traffic.

After extending the landing gear, applying carburetor
heat (if applicable), and retarding the throttle to idle
(or normal approach power), the airplane should be
held at a constant altitude in level flight until the
airspeed decelerates to that of a normal approach. The
airplane should then be smoothly nosed down into the
normal approach attitude to maintain that airspeed.
Wing flaps should be extended and pitch attitude
adjusted to maintain the airspeed.

When the approach attitude and airspeed have
stabilized, the airplane's nose should be smoothly
raised to an attitude that will induce a stall. Directional
control should be maintained with the rudder, the
wings held level by use of the ailerons, and a constant pitch
attitude maintained with the elevator until the
stall occurs. The stall will be recognized by clues, such
as full up-elevator, high descent rate, uncontrollable
nose down pitching, and possible buffeting.

Recovering from the stall should be accomplished by
reducing the angle of attack, releasing back-elevator
pressure, and advancing the throttle to maximum
allowable power. Right rudder pressure is necessary to
overcome the engine torque effects as power is
advanced and the nose is being lowered. [Figure 4-5]
The nose should be lowered as necessary to regain
flying speed and returned to straight-and-level flight
attitude. After establishing a positive rate of climb, the
flaps and landing gear are retracted, as necessary, and
when in level flight, the throttle should be returned to
cruise power setting. After recovery is complete, a climb
or go-around procedure should be initiated, as the situation
dictates, to assure a minimum loss of altitude.

Power-off stall and recovery.
Figure 4-5. Power-off stall and recovery.

 

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