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Airplane Flying Handbook
Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Stalls

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Although stall recoveries should be practiced without,
as well as with the use of power, in most actual stalls
the application of more power, if available, is an
integral part of the stall recovery. Usually, the greater
the power applied, the less the loss of altitude.
Maximum allowable power applied at the instant of a
stall will usually not cause overspeeding of an engine
equipped with a fixed-pitch propeller, due to the heavy
air load imposed on the propeller at slow airspeeds.
However, it will be necessary to reduce the power as
airspeed is gained after the stall recovery so the
airspeed will not become excessive. When performing
intentional stalls, the tachometer indication should
never be allowed to exceed the red line (maximum
allowable r.p.m.) marked on the instrument.

Third, straight-and-level flight should be regained with
coordinated use of all controls.

Practice in both power-on and power-off stalls is
important because it simulates stall conditions that
could occur during normal flight maneuvers. For
example, the power-on stalls are practiced to show
what could happen if the airplane were climbing at an
excessively nose-high attitude immediately after
takeoff or during a climbing turn. The power-off
turning stalls are practiced to show what could happen
if the controls are improperly used during a turn from
the base leg to the final approach. The power-off
straight-ahead stall simulates the attitude and flight
characteristics of a particular airplane during the final
approach and landing.

Usually, the first few practices should include only
approaches to stalls, with recovery initiated as soon as
the first buffeting or partial loss of control is noted. In

this way, the pilot can become familiar with the
indications of an approaching stall without actually
stalling the airplane. Once the pilot becomes
comfortable with this procedure, the airplane should
be slowed in such a manner that it stalls in as near a
level pitch attitude as is possible. The student pilot
must not be allowed to form the impression that in all
circumstances, a high pitch attitude is necessary to
exceed the critical angle of attack, or that in all
circumstances, a level or near level pitch attitude is
indicative of a low angle of attack. Recovery should be
practiced first without the addition of power, by merely
relieving enough back-elevator pressure that the stall
is broken and the airplane assumes a normal glide
attitude. The instructor should also introduce the
student to a secondary stall at this point. Stall
recoveries should then be practiced with the addition
of power to determine how effective power will be in
executing a safe recovery and minimizing altitude loss.

Stall accidents usually result from an inadvertent stall
at a low altitude in which a recovery was not
accomplished prior to contact with the surface. As a
preventive measure, stalls should be practiced at an
altitude which will allow recovery no lower than 1,500
feet AGL. To recover with a minimum loss of altitude
requires a reduction in the angle of attack (lowering
the airplane's pitch attitude), application of power, and
termination of the descent without entering another
(secondary) stall.

USE OF AILERONS/RUDDER IN STALL
RECOVERY

Different types of airplanes have different stall
characteristics. Most airplanes are designed so that the
wings will stall progressively outward from the wing
roots (where the wing attaches to the fuselage) to the
wingtips. This is the result of designing the wings in a
manner that the wingtips have less angle of incidence
than the wing roots. [Figure 4-4] Such a design feature
causes the wingtips to have a smaller angle of attack
than the wing roots during flight.

Wingtip washout.
Figure 4-4. Wingtip washout.

 

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