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Airplane Flying Handbook
Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



During the practice of intentional stalls, the real
objective is not to learn how to stall an airplane, but to
learn how to recognize an approaching stall and take
prompt corrective action. [Figure 4-3] Though the
recovery actions must be taken in a coordinated
manner, they are broken down into three actions here
for explanation purposes.

First, at the indication of a stall, the pitch attitude and
angle of attack must be decreased positively and
immediately. Since the basic cause of a stall is always
an excessive angle of attack, the cause must first be
eliminated by releasing the back-elevator pressure that
was necessary to attain that angle of attack or by
moving the elevator control forward. This lowers the
nose and returns the wing to an effective angle of
attack. The amount of elevator control pressure or
movement used depends on the design of the airplane,
the severity of the stall, and the proximity of the
ground. In some airplanes, a moderate movement of
the elevator control—perhaps slightly forward of
neutral—is enough, while in others a forcible push to
the full forward position may be required. An
excessive negative load on the wings caused by
excessive forward movement of the elevator may
impede, rather than hasten, the stall recovery. The
object is to reduce the angle of attack but only enough
to allow the wing to regain lift.

Second, the maximum allowable power should be
applied to increase the airplane's airspeed and assist in
reducing the wing's angle of attack. The throttle
should be promptly, but smoothly, advanced to the
maximum allowable power. The flight instructor
should emphasize, however, that power is not essential
for a safe stall recovery if sufficient altitude is
available. Reducing the angle of attack is the only way
of recovering from a stall regardless of the amount of
power used.

Stall Recognition
• High angle of attack
• Airframe buffeting or shaking
• Warning horn or light
• Loss of lift

Stall Recovery
• Reduce angle of attack
• Add power

Stall recognition and recovery.
Figure 4-3. Stall recognition and recovery.