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Airplane Flying Handbook
Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Spins

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

The point is that 360° of rotation (one-turn spin) does
not provide a stabilized spin. If the airplane's
controllability has not been explored by the
engineering test pilot beyond the certification
requirements, prolonged spins (inadvertent or
intentional) in that airplane place an operating pilot in
an unexplored flight situation. Recovery may be
difficult or impossible.

In 14 CFR part 23, "Airworthiness Standards: Normal,
Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category
Airplanes," there are no requirements for investigation
of controllability in a true spinning condition for the
Normal category airplanes. The one-turn "margin of
safety" is essentially a check of the airplane's controllability
in a delayed recovery from a stall. Therefore,
in airplanes placarded against spins there is absolutely
no assurance whatever that recovery from a fully
developed spin is possible under any circumstances.
The pilot of an airplane placarded against intentional
spins should assume that the airplane may well become
uncontrollable in a spin.

WEIGHT AND BALANCE REQUIREMENTS
With each airplane that is approved for spinning, the
weight and balance requirements are important for
safe performance and recovery from the spin maneuver.
Pilots must be aware that just minor weight or
balance changes can affect the airplane's spin
recovery characteristics. Such changes can either
alter or enhance the spin maneuver and/or recovery
characteristics. For example, the addition of weight
in the aft baggage compartment, or additional fuel,
may still permit the airplane to be operated within
CG, but could seriously affect the spin and recovery
characteristics.

An airplane that may be difficult to spin intentionally
in the Utility Category (restricted aft CG and reduced
weight) could have less resistance to spin entry in the
Normal Category (less restricted aft CG and increased
weight). This situation is due to the airplane being able
to generate a higher angle of attack and load factor.
Furthermore, an airplane that is approved for spins in
the Utility Category, but loaded in the Normal
Category, may not recover from a spin that is allowed
to progress beyond the incipient phase.

Common errors in the performance of intentional
spins are:
• Failure to apply full rudder pressure in the desired
spin direction during spin entry.
• Failure to apply and maintain full up-elevator
pressure during spin entry, resulting in a spiral.
• Failure to achieve a fully stalled condition prior to
spin entry.
• Failure to apply full rudder against the spin during
recovery.
• Failure to apply sufficient forward-elevator
pressure during recovery.
• Failure to neutralize the rudder during recovery
after rotation stops, resulting in a possible
secondary spin.
• Slow and overly cautious control movements
during recovery.
• Excessive back-elevator pressure after rotation
stops, resulting in possible secondary stall.
• Insufficient back-elevator pressure during
recovery resulting in excessive airspeed.

 

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