| Home | Privacy | Contact |

Airplane Flying Handbook
Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Spins

| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

To recover, control inputs are initiated to disrupt the
spin equilibrium by stopping the rotation and stall. To
accomplish spin recovery, the manufacturer's
recommended procedures should be followed. In the
absence of the manufacturer's recommended spin
recovery procedures and techniques, the following
spin recovery procedures are recommended.

Step 1—REDUCE THE POWER (THROTTLE)
TO IDLE.
Power aggravates the spin
characteristics. It usually results in a flatter spin
attitude and increased rotation rates.

Step 2—POSITION THE AILERONS TO
NEUTRAL.
Ailerons may have an adverse effect
on spin recovery. Aileron control in the direction
of the spin may speed up the rate of rotation and
delay the recovery. Aileron control opposite the
direction of the spin may cause the down aileron
to move the wing deeper into the stall and
aggravate the situation. The best procedure is to
ensure that the ailerons are neutral.

Step 3—APPLY FULL OPPOSITE RUDDER
AGAINST THE ROTATION.
Make sure that full
(against the stop) opposite rudder has been
applied.

Step 4—APPLY A POSITIVE AND BRISK,
STRAIGHT FORWARD MOVEMENT OF THE
ELEVATOR CONTROL FORWARD OF THE
NEUTRAL TO BREAK THE STALL.
This
should be done immediately after full rudder
application. The forceful movement of the
elevator will decrease the excessive angle of attack
and break the stall. The controls should be held
firmly in this position. When the stall is "broken,"
the spinning will stop.

Step 5—AFTER SPIN ROTATION STOPS,
NEUTRALIZE THE RUDDER.
If the rudder is
not neutralized at this time, the ensuing increased
airspeed acting upon a deflected rudder will cause
a yawing or skidding effect.
Slow and overly cautious control movements
during spin recovery must be avoided. In certain
cases it has been found that such movements result
in the airplane continuing to spin indefinitely, even
with anti-spin inputs. A brisk and positive
technique, on the other hand, results in a more
positive spin recovery.

Step 6—BEGIN APPLYING BACK-ELEVATOR
PRESSURE TO RAISE THE NOSE TO LEVEL
FLIGHT.
Caution must be used not to apply
excessive back-elevator pressure after the rotation
stops. Excessive back-elevator pressure can cause
a secondary stall and result in another spin. Care
should be taken not to exceed the "G" load limits
and airspeed limitations during recovery. If the
flaps and/or retractable landing gear are extended
prior to the spin, they should be retracted as soon
as possible after spin entry.

It is important to remember that the above spin
recovery procedures and techniques are recommended
for use only in the absence of the manufacturer's
procedures. Before any pilot attempts to begin spin
training, that pilot must be familiar with the procedures
provided by the manufacturer for spin recovery.

The most common problems in spin recovery include
pilot confusion as to the direction of spin rotation and
whether the maneuver is a spin versus spiral. If the
airspeed is increasing, the airplane is no longer in a
spin but in a spiral. In a spin, the airplane is stalled.
The indicated airspeed, therefore, should reflect
stall speed.

INTENTIONAL SPINS
The intentional spinning of an airplane, for which the
spin maneuver is not specifically approved, is NOT
authorized by this handbook or by the Code of Federal
Regulations. The official sources for determining if the
spin maneuver IS APPROVED or NOT APPROVED
for a specific airplane are:

• Type Certificate Data Sheets or the Aircraft
Specifications.
• The limitation section of the FAA-approved
AFM/POH. The limitation sections may provide
additional specific requirements for spin
authorization, such as limiting gross weight, CG
range, and amount of fuel.
• On a placard located in clear view of the pilot in
the airplane, NO ACROBATIC MANEUVERS
INCLUDING SPINS APPROVED. In airplanes
placarded against spins, there is no assurance that
recovery from a fully developed spin is possible.

There are occurrences involving airplanes wherein
spin restrictions are intentionally ignored by some
pilots. Despite the installation of placards prohibiting
intentional spins in these airplanes, a number of pilots,
and some flight instructors, attempt to justify the
maneuver, rationalizing that the spin restriction results
merely because of a "technicality" in the airworthiness
standards.

Some pilots reason that the airplane was spin tested
during its certification process and, therefore, no
problem should result from demonstrating or
practicing spins. However, those pilots overlook the
fact that a normal category airplane certification only
requires the airplane recover from a one-turn spin in
not more than one additional turn or 3 seconds,
whichever takes longer. This same test of controllability
can also be used in certificating an airplane in the
Utility category (14 CFR section 23.221 (b)).

 

4-15