| Home | Privacy | Contact |

Airplane Flying Handbook
Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins

| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



or a simulated forced landing approach, or
immediately after a takeoff. The objective of the
demonstration is to show the importance of making
smooth power applications, overcoming strong trim
forces and maintaining positive control of the airplane
to hold safe flight attitudes, and using proper and
timely trim techniques.
At a safe altitude and after ensuring that the area is
clear of other air traffic, the pilot should slowly retard
the throttle and extend the landing gear (if retractable
gear). One-half to full flaps should be lowered, the
throttle closed, and altitude maintained until the
airspeed approaches the normal glide speed. When the
normal glide is established, the airplane should be
trimmed for the glide just as would be done during a
landing approach (nose-up trim).

During this simulated final approach glide, the throttle
is then advanced smoothly to maximum allowable
power as would be done in a go-around procedure. The
combined forces of thrust, torque, and back-elevator
trim will tend to make the nose rise sharply and turn to
the left.

When the throttle is fully advanced and the pitch
attitude increases above the normal climbing attitude
and it is apparent that a stall is approaching, adequate
forward pressure must be applied to return the airplane
to the normal climbing attitude. While holding the
airplane in this attitude, the trim should then be
adjusted to relieve the heavy control pressures and the
normal go-around and level-off procedures completed.
The pilot should recognize when a stall is approaching,
and take prompt action to prevent a completely stalled
condition. It is imperative that a stall not occur during
an actual go-around from a landing approach.

Common errors in the performance of intentional stalls
• Failure to adequately clear the area.
• Inability to recognize an approaching stall
condition through feel for the airplane.
• Premature recovery.
• Over-reliance on the airspeed indicator while
excluding other cues.
• Inadequate scanning resulting in an unintentional
wing-low condition during entry.
• Excessive back-elevator pressure resulting in an
exaggerated nose-up attitude during entry.

• Inadequate rudder control.
• Inadvertent secondary stall during recovery.
• Failure to maintain a constant bank angle during
turning stalls.
• Excessive forward-elevator pressure during
recovery resulting in negative load on the wings.
• Excessive airspeed buildup during recovery.
• Failure to take timely action to prevent a full stall
during the conduct of imminent stalls.


A spin may be defined as an aggravated stall that
results in what is termed "autorotation" wherein the
airplane follows a downward corkscrew path. As the
airplane rotates around a vertical axis, the rising wing
is less stalled than the descending wing creating a
rolling, yawing, and pitching motion. The airplane is
basically being forced downward by gravity, rolling,
yawing, and pitching in a spiral path. [Figure 4-9]
The autorotation results from an unequal angle of
attack on the airplane's wings. The rising wing has a
decreasing angle of attack, where the relative lift
increases and the drag decreases. In effect, this wing is
less stalled. Meanwhile, the descending wing has an
increasing angle of attack, past the wing's critical angle
of attack (stall) where the relative lift decreases and
drag increases.

Spin—an aggravated stall and autorotation.
Figure 4-9. Spin—an aggravated stall and autorotation.