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Airplane Flying Handbook
Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



than the airplane manufacturer's recommended
airspeeds or the design maneuvering speed specified
for the airplane. The design maneuvering speed is the
maximum speed at which the airplane can be stalled or
full available aerodynamic control will not exceed the
airplane's limit load factor. At or below this speed, the
airplane will usually stall before the limit load factor
can be exceeded. Those speeds must not be exceeded
because of the extremely high structural loads that are
imposed on the airplane, especially if there is
turbulence. In most cases, these stalls should be
performed at no more than 1.2 times the normal
stall speed.

The objective of demonstrating accelerated stalls is not
to develop competency in setting up the stall, but rather
to learn how they may occur and to develop the ability
to recognize such stalls immediately, and to take
prompt, effective recovery action. It is important that
recoveries are made at the first indication of a stall, or
immediately after the stall has fully developed; a
prolonged stall condition should never be allowed.

An airplane will stall during a coordinated steep turn
exactly as it does from straight flight, except that the
pitching and rolling actions tend to be more sudden. If
the airplane is slipping toward the inside of the turn at
the time the stall occurs, it tends to roll rapidly toward
the outside of the turn as the nose pitches down
because the outside wing stalls before the inside wing.
If the airplane is skidding toward the outside of the
turn, it will have a tendency to roll to the inside of the
turn because the inside wing stalls first. If the
coordination of the turn at the time of the stall is
accurate, the airplane's nose will pitch away from the
pilot just as it does in a straight flight stall, since both
wings stall simultaneously.

An accelerated stall demonstration is entered by
establishing the desired flight attitude, then smoothly,
firmly, and progressively increasing the angle of attack
until a stall occurs. Because of the rapidly changing
flight attitude, sudden stall entry, and possible loss of
altitude, it is extremely vital that the area be clear of
other aircraft and the entry altitude be adequate for safe

This demonstration stall, as in all stalls, is
accomplished by exerting excessive back-elevator
pressure. Most frequently it would occur during
improperly executed steep turns, stall and spin
recoveries, and pullouts from steep dives. The
objectives are to determine the stall characteristics of
the airplane and develop the ability to instinctively
recover at the onset of a stall at other-than-normal stall
speed or flight attitudes. An accelerated stall, although
usually demonstrated in steep turns, may actually be
encountered any time excessive back-elevator pressure
is applied and/or the angle of attack is increased
too rapidly.

From straight-and-level flight at maneuvering speed
or less, the airplane should be rolled into a steep level
flight turn and back-elevator pressure gradually
applied. After the turn and bank are established,
back-elevator pressure should be smoothly and
steadily increased. The resulting apparent centrifugal
force will push the pilot's body down in the seat,
increase the wing loading, and decrease the airspeed.
After the airspeed reaches the design maneuvering
speed or within 20 knots above the unaccelerated stall
speed, back-elevator pressure should be firmly
increased until a definite stall occurs. These speed
restrictions must be observed to prevent exceeding the
load limit of the airplane.

When the airplane stalls, recovery should be made
promptly, by releasing sufficient back-elevator
pressure and increasing power to reduce the angle of
attack. If an uncoordinated turn is made, one wing may
tend to drop suddenly, causing the airplane to roll in
that direction. If this occurs, the excessive backelevator
pressure must be released, power added, and
the airplane returned to straight-and-level flight with
coordinated control pressure.

The pilot should recognize when the stall is imminent
and take prompt action to prevent a completely stalled
condition. It is imperative that a prolonged stall,
excessive airspeed, excessive loss of altitude, or spin
be avoided.

The objective of a cross-control stall demonstration
maneuver is to show the effect of improper control
technique and to emphasize the importance of using
coordinated control pressures whenever making turns.
This type of stall occurs with the controls crossed—
aileron pressure applied in one direction and rudder
pressure in the opposite direction.

In addition, when excessive back-elevator pressure is
applied, a cross-control stall may result. This is a stall
that is most apt to occur during a poorly planned and
executed base-to-final approach turn, and often is the
result of overshooting the centerline of the runway
during that turn. Normally, the proper action to correct
for overshooting the runway is to increase the rate of
turn by using coordinated aileron and rudder. At the
relatively low altitude of a base-to-final approach turn,
improperly trained pilots may be apprehensive of
steepening the bank to increase the rate of turn, and
rather than steepening the bank, they hold the bank
constant and attempt to increase the rate of turn by
adding more rudder pressure in an effort to align it
with the runway.