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Airplane Flying Handbook
Basic Flight Maneuvers
Straight and Level Flight

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Indications of a slip and skid.
Figure 3-8. Indications of a slip and skid.

When changing from a shallow bank to a medium
bank, the airspeed of the wing on the outside of the turn
increases in relation to the inside wing as the radius of
turn decreases. The additional lift developed because
of this increase in speed of the wing balances the
inherent lateral stability of the airplane. At any given
airspeed, aileron pressure is not required to maintain
the bank. If the bank is allowed to increase from a
medium to a steep bank, the radius of turn decreases
further. The lift of the outside wing causes the bank to
steepen and opposite aileron is necessary to keep the
bank constant.

As the radius of the turn becomes smaller, a significant
difference develops between the speed of the inside
wing and the speed of the outside wing. The wing on
the outside of the turn travels a longer circuit than the
inside wing, yet both complete their respective circuits
in the same length of time. Therefore, the outside wing
travels faster than the inside wing, and as a result, it
develops more lift. This creates an overbanking
tendency that must be controlled by the use of the
ailerons. [Figure 3-10] Because the outboard wing is
developing more lift, it also has more induced drag.
This causes a slight slip during steep turns that must be
corrected by use of the rudder.

Sometimes during early training in steep turns, the
nose may be allowed to get excessively low resulting
in a significant loss in altitude. To recover, the pilot
should first reduce the angle of bank with coordinated
use of the rudder and aileron, then raise the nose of the
airplane to level flight with the elevator. If recovery
from an excessively nose-low steep bank condition is
attempted by use of the elevator only, it will cause a
steepening of the bank and could result in overstressing
the airplane. Normally, small corrections for pitch
during steep turns are accomplished with the elevator,
and the bank is held constant with the ailerons.

To establish the desired angle of bank, the pilot should
use outside visual reference points, as well as the bank
indicator on the attitude indicator.

Overbanking tendency during a steep turn.
Figure 3-10. Overbanking tendency during a steep turn.

The best outside reference for establishing the degree of
bank is the angle formed by the raised wing of low-wing
airplanes (the lowered wing of high-wing airplanes) and
the horizon, or the angle made by the top of the engine
cowling and the horizon. [Figure 3-11 on page 3-11]
Since on most light airplanes the engine cowling is fairly
flat, its horizontal angle to the horizon will give some
indication of the approximate degree of bank. Also,
information obtained from the attitude indicator will
show the angle of the wing in relation to the horizon.
Information from the turn coordinator, however, will not.

 

3-9