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Airplane Flying Handbook
Basic Flight Maneuvers
Straight and Level Flight

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



Nose reference for straight-and-level flight.
Figure 3-3. Nose reference for straight-and-level flight.

The pitch information obtained from the attitude indicator
also will show the position of the nose relative to
the horizon and will indicate whether elevator pressure
is necessary to change the pitch attitude to return to
level flight. However, the primary reference source is
the natural horizon.

In all normal maneuvers, the term "increase the pitch
attitude" implies raising the nose in relation to the horizon;
the term "decreasing the pitch attitude" means
lowering the nose.

Straight flight (laterally level flight) is accomplished
by visually checking the relationship of the airplane's
wingtips with the horizon. Both wingtips should be
equidistant above or below the horizon (depending on
whether the airplane is a high-wing or low-wing type),
and any necessary adjustments should be made with
the ailerons, noting the relationship of control pressure
and the airplane's attitude. [Figure 3-4] The student
should understand that anytime the wings are banked,
even though very slightly, the airplane will turn. The
objective of straight-and-level flight is to detect small
deviations from laterally level flight as soon as they
occur, necessitating only small corrections. Reference
to the heading indicator should be made to note any
change in direction.

Wingtip reference for straight-and-level flight.
Figure 3-4. Wingtip reference for straight-and-level flight.