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Airplane Flying Handbook
Basic Flight Maneuvers
Climbs and Climbing Turns

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Climb indications.
Figure 3-16. Climb indications.

After the airplane is established in level flight at a
constant altitude, climb power should be retained
temporarily so that the airplane will accelerate to the
cruise airspeed more rapidly. When the speed reaches
the desired cruise speed, the throttle setting and the
propeller control (if equipped) should be set to the
cruise power setting and the airplane trimmed. After
allowing time for engine temperatures to stabilize,
adjust the mixture control as required.

In the performance of climbing turns, the following
factors should be considered.
• With a constant power setting, the same pitch attitude
and airspeed cannot be maintained in a bank
as in a straight climb due to the increase in the total
lift required.
• The degree of bank should not be too steep. A
steep bank significantly decreases the rate of
climb. The bank should always remain constant.
• It is necessary to maintain a constant airspeed and
constant rate of turn in both right and left turns.
The coordination of all flight controls is a primary
factor.
• At a constant power setting, the airplane will climb
at a slightly shallower climb angle because some
of the lift is being used to turn the airplane.
• Attention should be diverted from fixation on the
airplane's nose and divided equally among inside
and outside references.

There are two ways to establish a climbing turn. Either
establish a straight climb and then turn, or enter the
climb and turn simultaneously. Climbing turns should
be used when climbing to the local practice area.
Climbing turns allow better visual scanning, and it is
easier for other pilots to see a turning aircraft.
In any turn, the loss of vertical lift and increased
induced drag, due to increased angle of attack,
becomes greater as the angle of bank is increased. So
shallow turns should be used to maintain an efficient
rate of climb.

All the factors that affect the airplane during level
(constant altitude) turns will affect it during climbing
turns or any other training maneuver. It will be noted
that because of the low airspeed, aileron drag (adverse
yaw) will have a more prominent effect than it did in
straight-and-level flight and more rudder pressure will
have to be blended with aileron pressure to keep the
airplane in coordinated flight during changes in bank
angle. Additional elevator back pressure and trim will
also have to be used to compensate for centrifugal
force, for the loss of vertical lift, and to keep pitch attitude
constant.

During climbing turns, as in any turn, the loss of vertical
lift and induced drag due to increased angle of
attack becomes greater as the angle of bank is
increased, so shallow turns should be used to maintain
an efficient rate of climb. If a medium or steep banked
turn is used, climb performance will be degraded.

Common errors in the performance of climbs and
climbing turns are:
• Attempting to establish climb pitch attitude by referencing
the airspeed indicator, resulting in "chasing"
the airspeed.
• Applying elevator pressure too aggressively,
resulting in an excessive climb angle.
• Applying elevator pressure too aggressively during
level-off resulting in negative "G" forces.
• Inadequate or inappropriate rudder pressure during
climbing turns.
• Allowing the airplane to yaw in straight climbs,
usually due to inadequate right rudder pressure.
• Fixation on the nose during straight climbs, resulting
in climbing with one wing low.
• Failure to initiate a climbing turn properly with use
of rudder and elevators, resulting in little turn, but
rather a climb with one wing low.
• Improper coordination resulting in a slip which
counteracts the effect of the climb, resulting in little
or no altitude gain.
• Inability to keep pitch and bank attitude constant
during climbing turns.
• Attempting to exceed the airplane's climb capability.

 

 

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