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Airplane Flying Handbook
Basic Flight Maneuvers
Straight and Level Flight

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



Visual reference for angle of bank.
Figure 3-11. Visual reference for angle of bank.

The pilot's posture while seated in the airplane is very
important, particularly during turns. It will affect the
interpretation of outside visual references. At the
beginning, the student may lean away from the turn in
an attempt to remain upright in relation to the ground
rather than ride with the airplane. This should be corrected
immediately if the student is to properly learn to
use visual references. [Figure 3-12]

Parallax error is common among students and experienced
pilots. This error is a characteristic of airplanes
that have side-by-side seats because the pilot is seated to
one side of the longitudinal axis about which the airplane
rolls. This makes the nose appear to rise when making a
left turn and to descend when making right turns. [Figure

Beginning students should not use large aileron and
rudder applications because this produces a rapid roll
rate and allows little time for corrections before the
desired bank is reached. Slower (small control displacement)
roll rates provide more time to make
necessary pitch and bank corrections. As soon as
the airplane rolls from the wings-level attitude, the
nose should also start to move along the horizon,
increasing its rate of travel proportionately as the
bank is increased.

Right and wrong posture while seated in the airplane.
Figure 3-12. Right and wrong posture while seated in the airplane.

The following variations provide excellent guides.

• If the nose starts to move before the bank starts,
rudder is being applied too soon.
• If the bank starts before the nose starts turning, or
the nose moves in the opposite direction, the rudder
is being applied too late.
• If the nose moves up or down when entering a
bank, excessive or insufficient up elevator is being

As the desired angle of bank is established, aileron
and rudder pressures should be relaxed. This will
stop the bank from increasing because the aileron
and rudder control surfaces will be neutral in their
streamlined position. The up-elevator pressure
should not be relaxed, but should be held constant to
maintain a constant altitude. Throughout the turn, the
pilot should cross-check the airspeed indicator, and
if the airspeed has decreased more than 5 knots, additional
power should be used. The cross-check should
also include outside references, altimeter, and vertical
speed indicator (VSI), which can help determine
whether or not the pitch attitude is correct. If gaining
or losing altitude, the pitch attitude should be
adjusted in relation to the horizon, and then the
altimeter and VSI rechecked to determine if altitude
is being maintained.

Parallax view.
Figure 3-13. Parallax view.