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Airplane Flying Handbook
Ground Operations

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



When removing the wheel chocks after the engine
starts, it is essential that the pilot remember that the
propeller is almost invisible. Incredible as it may seem,
serious injuries and fatalities occur when people who
have just started an engine walk or reach into the
propeller arc to remove the chocks. Before the chocks
are removed, the throttle should be set to idle and the
chocks approached from the rear of the propeller.
Never approach the chocks from the front or the side.

The procedures for hand propping should always be in
accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations
and checklist. Special starting procedures are used
when the engine is already warm, very cold, or when
flooded or vapor locked. There will also be a different
starting procedure when an external power source
is used.

The following basic taxi information is applicable to
both nosewheel and tailwheel airplanes.

Taxiing is the controlled movement of the airplane
under its own power while on the ground. Since an
airplane is moved under its own power between the
parking area and the runway, the pilot must thoroughly
understand and be proficient in taxi procedures.

An awareness of other aircraft that are taking off,
landing, or taxiing, and consideration for the right-of-way
of others is essential to safety. When taxiing, the
pilot's eyes should be looking outside the airplane, to
the sides, as well as the front. The pilot must be aware
of the entire area around the airplane to ensure that the
airplane will clear all obstructions and other aircraft. If
at any time there is doubt about the clearance from an
object, the pilot should stop the airplane and have
someone check the clearance. It may be necessary to
have the airplane towed or physically moved by a
ground crew.

It is difficult to set any rule for a single, safe taxiing
speed. What is reasonable and prudent under some
conditions may be imprudent or hazardous under others.
The primary requirements for safe taxiing are positive
control, the ability to recognize potential hazards
in time to avoid them, and the ability to stop or turn
where and when desired, without undue reliance on the
brakes. Pilots should proceed at a cautious speed on
congested or busy ramps. Normally, the speed should
be at the rate where movement of the airplane is
dependent on the throttle. That is, slow enough so
when the throttle is closed, the airplane can be stopped
promptly. When yellow taxiway centerline stripes are
provided, they should be observed unless necessary to
clear airplanes or obstructions.

 Flight control positions during taxi.
Figure 2-10. Flight control positions during taxi.

When taxiing, it is best to slow down before
attempting a turn. Sharp, high-speed turns place
undesirable side loads on the landing gear and may
result in an uncontrollable swerve or a ground loop.
This swerve is most likely to occur when turning from
a downwind heading toward an upwind heading. In
moderate to high-wind conditions, pilots will note the
airplane's tendency to weathervane, or turn into the
wind when the airplane is proceeding crosswind.

When taxiing at appropriate speeds in no-wind
conditions, the aileron and elevator control surfaces
have little or no effect on directional control of the
airplane. The controls should not be considered
steering devices and should be held in a neutral
position. Their proper use while taxiing in windy
conditions will be discussed later. [Figure 2-10]

Steering is accomplished with rudder pedals and
brakes. To turn the airplane on the ground, the pilot
should apply rudder in the desired direction of turn and
use whatever power or brake that is necessary to
control the taxi speed. The rudder pedal should be held
in the direction of the turn until just short of the point
where the turn is to be stopped. Rudder pressure is then
released or opposite pressure is applied as needed.

More engine power may be required to start the
airplane moving forward, or to start a turn, than is
required to keep it moving in any given direction.
When using additional power, the throttle should
immediately be retarded once the airplane begins
moving, to prevent excessive acceleration.