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Airplane Flying Handbook
Ground Operations

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



After entering the airplane, the pilot should first ensure
that all necessary equipment, documents, checklists,
and navigation charts appropriate for the flight are on
board. If a portable intercom, headsets, or a hand-held
global positioning system (GPS) is used, the pilot is
responsible for ensuring that the routing of wires and
cables does not interfere with the motion or the
operation of any control.

Regardless of what materials are to be used, they
should be neatly arranged and organized in a manner
that makes them readily available. The cockpit and
cabin should be checked for articles that might be
tossed about if turbulence is encountered. Loose items
should be properly secured. All pilots should form the
habit of good housekeeping.

The pilot must be able to see inside and outside
references. If the range of motion of an adjustable seat
is inadequate, cushions should be used to provide the
proper seating position.

When the pilot is comfortably seated, the safety belt
and shoulder harness (if installed) should be fastened
and adjusted to a comfortably snug fit. The shoulder
harness must be worn at least for the takeoff and
landing, unless the pilot cannot reach or operate the
controls with it fastened. The safety belt must be worn
at all times when the pilot is seated at the controls.
If the seats are adjustable, it is important to ensure that
the seat is locked in position. Accidents have occurred
as the result of seat movement during acceleration or
pitch attitude changes during takeoffs or landings.
When the seat suddenly moves too close or too far
away from the controls, the pilot may be unable to
maintain control of the airplane.

14 CFR part 91 requires the pilot to ensure that each
person on board is briefed on how to fasten and
unfasten his/her safety belt and, if installed, shoulder
harness. This should be accomplished before starting
the engine, along with a passenger briefing on the
proper use of safety equipment and exit information.
Airplane manufacturers have printed briefing cards
available, similar to those used by airlines, to
supplement the pilot's briefing.


It is important that a pilot operates an airplane safely
on the ground. This includes being familiar with
standard hand signals that are used by ramp personnel.
[Figure 2-9]

Standard hand signals.
Figure 2-9. Standard hand signals.

The specific procedures for engine starting will not be
discussed here since there are as many different
methods as there are different engines, fuel systems,
and starting conditions. The before engine starting and
engine starting checklist procedures should be followed.
There are, however, certain precautions that
apply to all airplanes.

Some pilots have started the engine with the tail of the
airplane pointed toward an open hangar door, parked
automobiles, or a group of bystanders. This is not only
discourteous, but may result in personal injury and
damage to the property of others. Propeller blast can
be surprisingly powerful.

When ready to start the engine, the pilot should look in
all directions to be sure that nothing is or will be in the
vicinity of the propeller. This includes nearby persons
and aircraft that could be struck by the propeller blast
or the debris it might pick up from the ground. The
anticollision light should be turned on prior to engine
start, even during daytime operations. At night, the
position (navigation) lights should also be on.
The pilot should always call "CLEAR" out of the side
window and wait for a response from persons who may
be nearby before activating the starter.