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Airplane Flying Handbook
Ground Operations

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



The before takeoff check is the systematic procedure
for making a check of the engine, controls, systems,
instruments, and avionics prior to flight. Normally, it is
performed after taxiing to a position near the takeoff
end of the runway. Taxiing to that position usually
allows sufficient time for the engine to warm up to at
least minimum operating temperatures. This ensures
adequate lubrication and internal engine clearances
before being operated at high power settings. Many
engines require that the oil temperature reach a
minimum value as stated in the AFM/POH before high
power is applied.

Air-cooled engines generally are closely cowled and
equipped with pressure baffles that direct the flow of
air to the engine in sufficient quantities for cooling in
flight. On the ground, however, much less air is forced
through the cowling and around the baffling.
Prolonged ground operations may cause cylinder
overheating long before there is an indication of rising
oil temperature. Cowl flaps, if available, should be set
according to the AFM/POH.

Before beginning the before takeoff check, the airplane
should be positioned clear of other aircraft. There
should not be anything behind the airplane that might
be damaged by the prop blast. To minimize
overheating during engine runup, it is recommended
that the airplane be headed as nearly as possible into
the wind. After the airplane is properly positioned for
the runup, it should be allowed to roll forward slightly
so that the nosewheel or tailwheel will be aligned fore
and aft.

During the engine runup, the surface under the airplane
should be firm (a smooth, paved, or turf surface if
possible) and free of debris. Otherwise, the propeller
may pick up pebbles, dirt, mud, sand, or other loose
objects and hurl them backwards. This damages the
propeller and may damage the tail of the airplane.
Small chips in the leading edge of the propeller form
stress risers, or lines of concentrated high stress. These
are highly undesirable and may lead to cracks and
possible propeller blade failure.

While performing the engine runup, the pilot must
divide attention inside and outside the airplane. If the
parking brake slips, or if application of the toe brakes
is inadequate for the amount of power applied, the
airplane could move forward unnoticed if attention is
fixed inside the airplane.

Each airplane has different features and equipment,
and the before takeoff checklist provided by the
airplane manufacturer or operator should be used to
perform the runup.

During the after-landing roll, the airplane should be
gradually slowed to normal taxi speed before turning
off the landing runway. Any significant degree of turn
at faster speeds could result in ground looping and
subsequent damage to the airplane.

To give full attention to controlling the airplane during
the landing roll, the after-landing check should be
performed only after the airplane is brought to a
complete stop clear of the active runway. There have
been many cases of the pilot mistakenly grasping the
wrong handle and retracting the landing gear, instead
of the flaps, due to improper division of attention while
the airplane was moving. However, this procedure may
be modified if the manufacturer recommends that
specific after-landing items be accomplished during
landing rollout. For example, when performing a
short-field landing, the manufacturer may recommend
retracting the flaps on rollout to improve braking. In
this situation, the pilot should make a positive
identification of the flap control and retract the flaps.

Because of different features and equipment in various
airplanes, the after-landing checklist provided by the
manufacturer should be used. Some of the items may

• Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identify and retract
• Cowl flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open
• Propeller control . . . . . . . . . . . Full increase
• Trim tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set

Unless parking in a designated, supervised area, the
pilot should select a location and heading which will
prevent the propeller or jet blast of other airplanes from
striking the airplane broadside. Whenever possible, the
airplane should be parked headed into the existing or
forecast wind. After stopping on the desired heading,
the airplane should be allowed to roll straight ahead
enough to straighten the nosewheel or tailwheel.