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Airplane Flying Handbook
Ground Operations
Visual Inspection

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



Ground Operations

The accomplishment of a safe flight begins with a careful
visual inspection of the airplane. The purpose of the
preflight visual inspection is twofold: to determine that
the airplane is legally airworthy, and that it is in condition
for safe flight. The airworthiness of the airplane is
determined, in part, by the following certificates and
documents, which must be on board the airplane when
operated. [Figure 2-1]

  • Airworthiness certificate.
  • Registration certificate.
  • FCC radio station license, if required by the type
    of operation.
  • Airplane operating limitations, which may be in
    the form of an FAA-approved Airplane Flight
    Manual and/or Pilot's Operating Handbook
    (AFM/POH), placards, instrument markings, or
    any combination thereof.

Airplane logbooks are not required to be kept in the
airplane when it is operated. However, they should be
inspected prior to flight to show that the airplane has
had required tests and inspections. Maintenance
records for the airframe and engine are required to be
kept. There may also be additional propeller records.

At a minimum, there should be an annual inspection
within the preceding 12-calendar months. In addition,
the airplane may also be required to have a 100-hour
inspection in accordance with Title14 of the Code of
Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, section

If a transponder is to be used, it is required to be
inspected within the preceding 24-calendar months. If
the airplane is operated under instrument flight rules
(IFR) in controlled airspace, the pitot-static system is
also required to be inspected within the preceding
24-calendar months.

The emergency locator transmitter (ELT) should also
be checked. The ELT is battery powered, and the
battery replacement or recharge date should not
be exceeded.

Airworthiness Directives (ADs) have varying
compliance intervals and are usually tracked in a
separate area of the appropriate airframe, engine, or
propeller record.

Aircraft documents and AFM/POH.
Figure 2-1. Aircraft documents and AFM/POH.