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Airplane Flying Handbook
Emergency Procedures
EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

The pilot must be aware of the difference in stall
speeds between one wing and the other in a split flap
situation. The wing with the retracted flap will stall
considerably earlier than the wing with the deployed
flap. This type of asymmetrical stall will result in an
uncontrollable roll in the direction of the stalled (clean)
wing. If altitude permits, a spin will result.

The approach to landing with a split flap condition
should be flown at a higher than normal airspeed. The
pilot should not risk an asymmetric stall and subsequent
loss of control by flaring excessively. Rather, the
airplane should be flown onto the runway so that the
touchdown occurs at an airspeed consistent with a safe
margin above flaps-up stall speed.

LOSS OF ELEVATOR CONTROL

In many airplanes, the elevator is controlled by two
cables: a "down" cable and an "up" cable. Normally,
a break or disconnect in only one of these cables will
not result in a total loss of elevator control. In most
airplanes, a failed cable results in a partial loss of
pitch control. In the failure of the "up" elevator cable
(the "down" elevator being intact and functional) the
control yoke will move aft easily but produce no
response. Forward yoke movement, however, beyond
the neutral position produces a nosedown attitude.
Conversely, a failure of the "down" elevator cable,
forward movement of the control yoke produces no
effect. The pilot will, however, have partial control of
pitch attitude with aft movement.

When experiencing a loss of up-elevator control, the
pilot can retain pitch control by:
• Applying considerable nose-up trim.
• Pushing the control yoke forward to attain and
maintain desired attitude.
• Increasing forward pressure to lower the nose and
relaxing forward pressure to raise the nose.
• Releasing forward pressure to flare for landing.
When experiencing a loss of down-elevator control,
the pilot can retain pitch control by:
• Applying considerable nosedown trim.
• Pulling the control yoke aft to attain and maintain
attitude.
• Releasing back pressure to lower the nose and
increasing back pressure to raise the nose.
• Increasing back pressure to flare for landing.

Trim mechanisms can be useful in the event of an
in-flight primary control failure. For example, if the
linkage between the cockpit and the elevator fails in
flight, leaving the elevator free to weathervane in the
wind, the trim tab can be used to raise or lower the
elevator, within limits. The trim tabs are not as effective
as normal linkage control in conditions such as
low airspeed, but they do have some positive effect—
usually enough to bring about a safe landing.

If an elevator becomes jammed, resulting in a total loss
of elevator control movement, various combinations of
power and flap extension offer a limited amount of
pitch control. A successful landing under these conditions,
however, is problematical.

LANDING GEAR MALFUNCTION

Once the pilot has confirmed that the landing gear has
in fact malfunctioned, and that one or more gear legs
refuses to respond to the conventional or alternate
methods of gear extension contained in the AFM/POH,
there are several methods that may be useful in
attempting to force the gear down. One method is to
dive the airplane (in smooth air only) to VNE speed (red
line on the airspeed indicator) and (within the limits of
safety) execute a rapid pull up. In normal category
airplanes, this procedure will create a 3.8 G load on the
structure, in effect making the landing gear weigh 3.8
times normal. In some cases, this may force the landing
gear into the down and locked position. This
procedure requires a fine control touch and good feel
for the airplane. The pilot must avoid exceeding the
design stress limits of the airplane while attempting to
lower the landing gear. The pilot must also avoid an
accelerated stall and possible loss of control while
attention is directed to solving the landing gear
problem.

Another method that has proven useful in some cases
is to induce rapid yawing. After stabilizing at or
slightly less than maneuvering speed (VA), the pilot
should alternately and aggressively apply rudder in one
direction and then the other in rapid sequence. The
resulting yawing action may cause the landing gear to
fall into place.

If all efforts to extend the landing gear have failed, and
a gear up landing is inevitable, the pilot should select
an airport with crash and rescue facilities. The pilot
should not hesitate to request that emergency equipment
be standing by.

When selecting a landing surface, the pilot should consider
that a smooth, hard-surface runway usually
causes less damage than rough, unimproved grass
strips. A hard surface does, however, create sparks that
can ignite fuel. If the airport is so equipped, the pilot
can request that the runway surface be foamed. The
pilot should consider burning off excess fuel. This will
reduce landing speed and fire potential.

 

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