| Home | Privacy | Contact |

Airplane Flying Handbook
Emergency Procedures

| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



If electrical power is absolutely essential for the flight,
an attempt may be made to identify and isolate the
faulty circuit by:

1. Turning the electrical master switch OFF.
2. Turning all individual electrical switches OFF.
3. Turning the master switch back ON.
4. Selecting electrical switches that were ON before
the fire indication one at a time, permitting a short
time lapse after each switch is turned on to check
for signs of odor, smoke, or sparks.

This procedure, however, has the effect of recreating
the original problem. The most prudent course of
action is to land as soon as possible.


Cabin fires generally result from one of three sources:
(1) careless smoking on the part of the pilot and/or
passengers; (2) electrical system malfunctions; (3)
heating system malfunctions. A fire in the cabin presents
the pilot with two immediate demands: attacking
the fire, and getting the airplane safely on the ground
as quickly as possible. A fire or smoke in the cabin
should be controlled by identifying and shutting down
the faulty system. In many cases, smoke may be
removed from the cabin by opening the cabin air vents.
This should be done only after the fire extinguisher (if
available) is used. Then the cabin air control can be
opened to purge the cabin of both smoke and fumes. If
smoke increases in intensity when the cabin air vents
are opened, they should be immediately closed. This
indicates a possible fire in the heating system, nose
compartment baggage area (if so equipped), or that the
increase in airflow is feeding the fire.

On pressurized airplanes, the pressurization air system
will remove smoke from the cabin; however, if the
smoke is intense, it may be necessary to either depressurize
at altitude, if oxygen is available for all
occupants, or execute an emergency descent.

In unpressurized single-engine and light twin-engine
airplanes, the pilot can attempt to expel the smoke
from the cabin by opening the foul weather windows.
These windows should be closed immediately if the
fire becomes more intense. If the smoke is severe, the
passengers and crew should use oxygen masks if available,
and the pilot should initiate an immediate
descent. The pilot should also be aware that on some
airplanes, lowering the landing gear and/or wing flaps
can aggravate a cabin smoke problem.


The inability to extend the wing flaps will necessitate
a no-flap approach and landing. In light airplanes a no flap
approach and landing is not particularly difficult
or dangerous. However, there are certain factors which
must be considered in the execution of this maneuver.
A no-flap landing requires substantially more runway
than normal. The increase in required landing distance
could be as much as 50 percent.

When flying in the traffic pattern with the wing flaps
retracted, the airplane must be flown in a relatively
nose-high attitude to maintain altitude, as compared to
flight with flaps extended. Losing altitude can be more
of a problem without the benefit of the drag normally
provided by flaps. A wider, longer traffic pattern may
be required in order to avoid the necessity of diving to
lose altitude and consequently building up excessive

On final approach, a nose-high attitude can make it
difficult to see the runway. This situation, if not anticipated,
can result in serious errors in judgment of
height and distance. Approaching the runway in a
relatively nose-high attitude can also cause the
perception that the airplane is close to a stall. This may
cause the pilot to lower the nose abruptly and risk
touching down on the nosewheel.

With the flaps retracted and the power reduced for
landing, the airplane is slightly less stable in the pitch
and roll axes. Without flaps, the airplane will tend to
float considerably during roundout. The pilot should
avoid the temptation to force the airplane onto the runway
at an excessively high speed. Neither should the
pilot flare excessively, because without flaps this
might cause the tail to strike the runway.


An asymmetric "split" flap situation is one in which
one flap deploys or retracts while the other remains in
position. The problem is indicated by a pronounced
roll toward the wing with the least flap deflection
when wing flaps are extended/retracted.

The roll encountered in a split flap situation is countered
with opposite aileron. The yaw caused by the
additional drag created by the extended flap will
require substantial opposite rudder, resulting in a
cross-control condition. Almost full aileron may be
required to maintain a wings-level attitude, especially
at the reduced airspeed necessary for approach and
landing. The pilot therefore should not attempt to land
with a crosswind from the side of the deployed flap,
because the additional roll control required to counteract
the crosswind may not be available.