| Home | Privacy | Contact |

Airplane Flying Handbook
Emergency Procedures

| First | Previous | Next | Last |

Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



Torque and P-factor will cause the airplane to have a
tendency to bank and turn to the left. This must be
anticipated and compensated for. If the initial power
application results in an inadequate rate of climb,
power should be increased in increments of 100 r.p.m.
or 1 inch of manifold pressure until the desired rate of
climb is attained. Maximum available power is
seldom necessary. The more power used the more the
airplane will want to bank and turn to the left.
Resuming level flight is accomplished by first
decreasing pitch attitude to level on the attitude
indicator using slow but deliberate pressure, allowing
airspeed to increase to near cruise value, and then
decreasing power.


Descents are very much the opposite of the climb
procedure if the airplane is properly trimmed for
hands-off straight-and-level flight. In this configuration,
the airplane requires a certain amount of thrust to
maintain altitude. The pitch attitude is controlling the
airspeed. The engine power, therefore, (translated into
thrust by the propeller) is maintaining the selected
altitude. Following a power reduction, however slight,
there will be an almost imperceptible decrease in
airspeed. However, even a slight change in speed
results in less down load on the tail, whereupon the
designed nose heaviness of the airplane causes it to
pitch down just enough to maintain the airspeed for
which it was trimmed. The airplane will then descend
at a rate directly proportionate to the amount of thrust
that has been removed. Power reductions should be
made in increments of 100 r.p.m. or 1 inch of manifold
pressure and the resulting rate of descent should never
exceed 500 f.p.m. The wings should be held level on
the attitude indicator, and the pitch attitude should not
exceed one bar width below level. [Figure 16-14]


Combined maneuvers, such as climbing or descending
turns should be avoided if at all possible by an
untrained instrument pilot already under the stress of
an emergency situation. Combining maneuvers will
only compound the problems encountered in individual
maneuvers and increase the risk of control loss.
Remember that the objective is to maintain airplane
control by deviating as little as possible from straight and-
level flight attitude and thereby maintaining as
much of the airplane's natural equilibrium as possible.

When being assisted by air traffic controllers from the
ground, the pilot may detect a sense of urgency as he
or she is being directed to change heading and/or altitude.
This sense of urgency reflects a normal concern
for safety on the part of the controller. But the pilot
must not let this prompt him or her to attempt a maneuver
that could result in loss of control.

Level descent.
Figure 16-14. Level descent.


One of the most difficult tasks a trained and qualified
instrument pilot must contend with is the transition
from instrument to visual flight prior to landing. For
the untrained instrument pilot, these difficulties are

The difficulties center around acclimatization and
orientation. On an instrument approach the trained
instrument pilot must prepare in advance for the
transition to visual flight. The pilot must have a
mental picture of what he or she expects to see once
the transition to visual flight is made and quickly
acclimatize to the new environment. Geographical
orientation must also begin before the transition as the
pilot must visualize where the airplane will be in relation
to the airport/runway when the transition occurs
so that the approach and landing may be completed by
visual reference to the ground.

In an ideal situation the transition to visual flight is
made with ample time, at a sufficient altitude above
terrain, and to visibility conditions sufficient to
accommodate acclimatization and geographical
orientation. This, however, is not always the case. The
untrained instrument pilot may find the visibility still
limited, the terrain completely unfamiliar, and altitude
above terrain such that a "normal" airport traffic
pattern and landing approach is not possible.
Additionally, the pilot will most likely be under
considerable self-induced psychological pressure to
get the airplane on the ground. The pilot must take this
into account and, if possible, allow time to become
acclimatized and geographically oriented before
attempting an approach and landing, even if it means
flying straight and level for a time or circling the
airport. This is especially true at night.