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Airplane Flying Handbook
Emergency Procedures
INADVERTENT VFR FLIGHT INTO IMC

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

The primary instrument for attitude control is the attitude
indicator. [Figure 16-11] Once the airplane is
trimmed so that it will maintain hands-off level flight
at cruise airspeed, that airspeed need not vary until the
airplane must be slowed for landing. All turns, climbs
and descents can and should be made at this airspeed.
Straight flight is maintained by keeping the wings level
using "fingertip pressure" on the control wheel. Any
pitch attitude change should be made by using no more
than one bar width up or down.

Attitude indicator.
Figure 16-11. Attitude indicator.

TURNS

Turns are perhaps the most potentially dangerous
maneuver for the untrained instrument pilot for two
reasons.
• The normal tendency of the pilot to over control,
leading to steep banks and the possibility of a
"graveyard spiral."
• The inability of the pilot to cope with the instability
resulting from the turn.
When a turn must be made, the pilot must anticipate
and cope with the relative instability of the roll axis.
The smallest practical bank angle should be used—in
any case no more than 10° bank angle. [Figure 16-12]
A shallow bank will take very little vertical lift from
the wings resulting in little if any deviation in altitude.
It may be helpful to turn a few degrees and then return
to level flight, if a large change in heading must be
made. Repeat the process until the desired heading is
reached. This process may relieve the progressive
overbanking that often results from prolonged turns.

Level turn.
Figure 16-12. Level turn.

CLIMBS
If a climb is necessary, the pilot should raise the
miniature airplane on the attitude indicator no more
than one bar width and apply power. [Figure 16-13]
The pilot should not attempt to attain a specific climb
speed but accept whatever speed results. The objective
is to deviate as little as possible from level flight
attitude in order to disturb the airplane's equilibrium
as little as possible. If the airplane is properly
trimmed, it will assume a nose-up attitude on its own
commensurate with the amount of power applied.

Level climb.
Figure 16-13. Level climb.

 

16-15