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Airplane Flying Handbook
Emergency Procedures
SYSTEMS MALFUNCTIONS

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

If the landing gear malfunction is limited to one main
landing gear leg, the pilot should consume as much
fuel from that side of the airplane as practicable,
thereby reducing the weight of the wing on that side.
The reduced weight makes it possible to delay the
unsupported wing from contacting the surface during
the landing roll until the last possible moment.
Reduced impact speeds result in less damage.

If only one landing gear leg fails to extend, the pilot
has the option of landing on the available gear legs, or
landing with all the gear legs retracted. Landing on
only one main gear usually causes the airplane to veer
strongly in the direction of the faulty gear leg after
touchdown. If the landing runway is narrow, and/or
ditches and obstacles line the runway edge, maximum
directional control after touchdown is a necessity. In
this situation, a landing with all three gear retracted
may be the safest course of action.

If the pilot elects to land with one main gear retracted
(and the other main gear and nose gear down and
locked), the landing should be made in a nose-high
attitude with the wings level. As airspeed decays, the
pilot should apply whatever aileron control is necessary
to keep the unsupported wing airborne as long as
possible. [Figure 16-7] Once the wing contacts the
surface, the pilot can anticipate a strong yaw in that
direction. The pilot must be prepared to use full
opposite rudder and aggressive braking to maintain
some degree of directional control.

Landing with one main gear retracted.
Figure 16-7. Landing with one main gear retracted.

When landing with a retracted nosewheel (and the
main gear extended and locked) the pilot should hold
the nose off the ground until almost full up-elevator
has been applied. [Figure 16-8] The pilot should then
release back pressure in such a manner that the nose
settles slowly to the surface. Applying and holding full
up-elevator will result in the nose abruptly dropping to
the surface as airspeed decays, possibly resulting in
burrowing and/or additional damage. Brake pressure
should not be applied during the landing roll unless
absolutely necessary to avoid a collision with obstacles.

Landing with nosewheel retracted.
Figure 16-8. Landing with nosewheel retracted.

If the landing must be made with only the nose gear
extended, the initial contact should be made on the aft
fuselage structure with a nose-high attitude. This
procedure will help prevent porpoising and/or wheelbarrowing.
The pilot should then allow the nosewheel
to gradually touch down, using nosewheel steering as
necessary for directional control.

SYSTEMS MALFUNCTIONS

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

The loss of electrical power can deprive the pilot of
numerous critical systems, and therefore should not
be taken lightly even in day/VFR conditions. Most
in-flight failures of the electrical system are located
in the generator or alternator. Once the generator or
alternator system goes off line, the electrical source
in a typical light airplane is a battery. If a warning
light or ammeter indicates the probability of an alternator
or generator failure in an airplane with only one
generating system, however, the pilot may have very
little time available from the battery.

The rating of the airplane battery provides a clue to how
long it may last. With batteries, the higher the amperage
load, the less the usable total amperage. Thus a 25-amp
hour battery could produce 5 amps per hour for 5 hours,
but if the load were increased to 10 amps, it might last
only 2 hours. A 40-amp load might discharge the battery
fully in about 10 or 15 minutes. Much depends on the
battery condition at the time of the system failure. If the
battery has been in service for a few years, its power may
be reduced substantially because of internal resistance.
Or if the system failure was not detected immediately,
much of the stored energy may have already been used. It
is essential, therefore, that the pilot immediately shed
non-essential loads when the generating source fails.
[Figure 16-9] The pilot should then plan to land at the
nearest suitable airport.

What constitutes an "emergency" load following a
generating system failure cannot be predetermined,
because the actual circumstances will always be
somewhat different—for example, whether the flight
is VFR or IFR, conducted in day or at night, in clouds
or in the clear. Distance to nearest suitable airport can
also be a factor.

 

16-10