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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
APPROACH AND LANDING

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

The climb pitch attitude should continue to be held and
the airplane allowed to accelerate to flap retraction
speed. However, the flaps should not be retracted until
obstruction clearance altitude or 400 feet AGL has
been passed. Ground effect and landing gear drag
reduction results in rapid acceleration during this phase
of the takeoff and climb. Airspeed, altitude, climb rate,
attitude, and heading must be monitored carefully.
When the airplane settles down to a steady climb,
longitudinal stick forces can be trimmed out. If a turn
must be made during this phase of flight, no more than
15° to 20° of bank should be used. Because of spiral
instability, and because at this point an accurate trim
state on rudder and ailerons has not yet been achieved,
the bank angle should be carefully monitored throughout
the turn. If a power reduction must be made, pitch
attitude should be reduced simultaneously and the
airplane monitored carefully so as to preclude entry
into an inadvertent descent. When the airplane has
attained a steady climb at the appropriate en route
climb speed, it can be trimmed about all axes and the
autopilot engaged.

JET AIRPLANE APPROACH AND LANDING

LANDING REQUIREMENTS

The FAA landing field length requirements for jet
airplanes are specified in 14 CFR part 25. It defines the
minimum field length (and therefore minimum
margins) that can be scheduled. The regulation
describes the landing profile as the distance required
from a point 50 feet above the runway threshold,
through the flare to touchdown, and then stopping
using the maximum stopping capability on a dry
runway surface. The actual demonstrated distance is
increased by 67 percent and published in the FAA approved
Airplane Flight Manual as the FAR dry
runway landing distance. [Figure 15-22] For wet
runways, the FAR dry runway distance is increased by
an additional 15 percent. Thus the minimum dry
runway field length will be 1.67 times the actual
minimum air and ground distance needed and the wet
runway minimum landing field length will be 1.92
times the minimum dry air and ground distance
needed.

Certified landing field length requirements are
computed for the stop made with speed brakes
deployed and maximum wheel braking. Reverse thrust
is not used in establishing the certified FAR landing
distances. However, reversers should definitely be
used in service.

LANDING SPEEDS

As in the takeoff planning, there are certain speeds that
must be taken into consideration during any landing in
a jet airplane. The speeds are as follows.

• Vso—Stall speed in the landing configuration.
• Vref—1.3 times the stall speed in the landing
configuration.
• Approach climb—The speed which guarantees
adequate performance in a go-around situation
with an inoperative engine. The airplane's weight
must be limited so that a twin-engine airplane
will have a 2.1 percent climb gradient capability.
(The approach climb gradient requirements for 3
and 4 engine airplanes are 2.4 percent and 2.7
percent respectively.) These criteria are based on
an airplane configured with approach flaps, landing
gear up, and takeoff thrust available from the
operative engine(s).
• Landing climb—The speed which guarantees
adequate performance in arresting the descent
and making a go-around from the final stages of
landing with the airplane in the full landing configuration
and maximum takeoff power available
on all engines.

The appropriate speeds should be pre-computed prior
to every landing, and posted where they are visible to
both pilots. The Vref speed, or threshold speed, is used
as a reference speed throughout the traffic pattern. For
example:
Downwind leg—Vref plus 20 knots.
Base leg—Vref plus 10 knots.
Final approach—Vref plus 5 knots.
50 feet over threshold—Vref.

The approach and landing sequence in a jet airplane
should be accomplished in accordance with an
approach and landing profile developed for the particular
airplane. [Figure 15-23]

FAR landing field length required.
Figure 15-22. FAR landing field length required.

 

15-19