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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



If sufficient runway length is available, a "rolling"
takeoff may be made without stopping at the end of the
runway. Using this procedure, as the airplane rolls onto
the runway, the thrust levers should be smoothly
advanced to the vertical position and the engines
allowed to stabilize, and then proceed as in the static
takeoff outlined above. Rolling takeoffs can also be
made from the end of the runway by advancing the
thrust levers from idle as the brakes are released.

During the takeoff roll, the pilot flying should
concentrate on directional control of the airplane. This
is made somewhat easier because there is no torqueproduced
yawing in a jet as there is in a propeller
driven airplane. The airplane must be maintained
exactly on centerline with the wings level. This will
automatically aid the pilot when contending with an
engine failure. If a crosswind exists, the wings should
be kept level by displacing the control wheel into the
crosswind. During the takeoff roll, the primary
responsibility of the pilot not flying is to closely
monitor the aircraft systems and to call out the proper
V speeds as directed in the captain's briefing.

Slight forward pressure should be held on the control
column to keep the nosewheel rolling firmly on the
runway. If nosewheel steering is being utilized, the
pilot flying should monitor the nosewheel steering to
about 80 knots (or VMCG for the particular airplane)
while the pilot not flying applies the forward pressure.
After reaching VMCG, the pilot flying should bring
his/her left hand up to the control wheel. The pilot's
other hand should be on the thrust levers until at least
V1 speed is attained. Although the pilot not flying
maintains a check on the engine instruments
throughout the takeoff roll, the pilot flying (pilot in
command) makes the decision to continue or reject a
takeoff for any reason. A decision to reject a takeoff
will require immediate retarding of thrust levers.

The pilot not flying should call out V1. After passing
V1 speed on the takeoff roll, it is no longer mandatory
for the pilot flying to keep a hand on the thrust levers.
The point for abort has passed, and both hands may be
placed on the control wheel. As the airspeed
approaches VR, the control column should be moved to
a neutral position. As the pre-computed VR speed is
attained, the pilot not flying should make the
appropriate callout and the pilot flying should
smoothly rotate the airplane to the appropriate takeoff
pitch attitude.


Rotation and lift-off in a jet airplane should be considered
a maneuver unto itself. It requires planning, precision,
and a fine control touch. The objective is to
initiate the rotation to takeoff pitch attitude exactly at
VR so that the airplane will accelerate through VLOF
and attain V2 speed at 35 feet at the end of the runway.
Rotation to the proper takeoff attitude too soon may
extend the takeoff roll or cause an early lift-off, which
will result in a lower rate of climb, and the predicted
flightpath will not be followed. A late rotation, on the
other hand, will result in a longer takeoff roll,
exceeding V2 speed, and a takeoff and climb path
below the predicted path.

Each airplane has its own specific takeoff pitch
attitude which remains constant regardless of weight.
The takeoff pitch attitude in a jet airplane is normally
between 10° and 15° nose up. The rotation to takeoff
pitch attitude should be made smoothly but
deliberately, and at a constant rate. Depending on the
particular airplane, the pilot should plan on a rate of
pitch attitude increase of approximately 2.5° to 3° per

In training it is common for the pilot to overshoot VR
and then overshoot V2 because the pilot not flying will
call for rotation at, or just past VR. The reaction of the
pilot flying is to visually verify VR and then rotate. The
airplane then leaves the ground at or above V2. The
excess airspeed may be of little concern on a normal
takeoff, but a delayed rotation can be critical when
runway length or obstacle clearance is limited. It
should be remembered that on some airplanes, the
all-engine takeoff can be more limiting than the engine
out takeoff in terms of obstacle clearance in the initial
part of the climb-out. This is because of the rapidly
increasing airspeed causing the achieved flightpath to
fall below the engine out scheduled flightpath unless
care is taken to fly the correct speeds. The
transitioning pilot should remember that rotation at the
right speed and rate to the right attitude will get the
airplane off the ground at the right speed and within
the right distance.


Once the proper pitch attitude is attained, it must be
maintained. The initial climb after lift-off is done at
this constant pitch attitude. Takeoff power is
maintained and the airspeed allowed to accelerate.
Landing gear retraction should be accomplished after
a positive rate of climb has been established and
confirmed. Remember that in some airplanes gear
retraction may temporarily increase the airplane drag
while landing gear doors open. Premature gear
retraction may cause the airplane to settle back
towards the runway surface. Remember also that
because of ground effect, the vertical speed indicator
and the altimeter may not show a positive climb until
the airplane is 35 to 50 feet above the runway.