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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



The pilot of a sweptwing jet airplane will soon become
adjusted to the fact that it is necessary and normal to
fly at higher angles of attack. It is not unusual to have
about 5° of nose up pitch on an approach to a landing.
During an approach to a stall at constant altitude, the
nose up angle may be as high as 15° to 20°. The higher
deck angles (pitch angle relative to the ground) on
takeoff, which may be as high as 15°, will also take
some getting used to, although this is not the actual
angle of attack relative to the airflow over the wing.

The greater variation of pitch attitudes flown in a jet
airplane are a result of the greater thrust available and
the flight characteristics of the low aspect ratio and
sweptwing. Flight at the higher pitch attitudes requires
a greater reliance on the flight instruments for airplane
control since there is not much in the way of a useful
horizon or other outside reference to be seen. Because
of the high rates of climb and descent, high airspeeds,
high altitudes and variety of attitudes flown, the jet
airplane can only be precisely flown by applying
proficient instrument flight techniques. Proficiency in
attitude instrument flying, therefore, is essential to
successful transition to jet airplane flying.

Most jet airplanes are equipped with a thumb operated
pitch trim button on the control wheel which the pilot
must become familiar with as soon as possible. The jet
airplane will differ regarding pitch tendencies with the
lowering of flaps, landing gear, and drag devices. With
experience, the jet airplane pilot will learn to anticipate
the amount of pitch change required for a particular
operation. The usual method of operating the trim
button is to apply several small, intermittent
applications of trim in the direction desired rather than
holding the trim button for longer periods of time
which can lead to over-controlling.


All FAA certificated jet airplanes are certificated under
Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR)
part 25, which contains the airworthiness standards for
transport category airplanes. The FAA certificated jet
airplane is a highly sophisticated machine with proven
levels of performance and guaranteed safety margins.
The jet airplane's performance and safety margins can
only be realized, however, if the airplane is operated in
strict compliance with the procedures and limitations
contained in the FAA-approved Airplane Flight
Manual for the particular airplane.

The following information is generic in nature and,
since most civilian jet airplanes require a minimum
flight crew of two pilots, assumes a two pilot crew. If
any of the following information conflicts with FAA approved
Airplane Flight Manual procedures for a
particular airplane, the Airplane Flight Manual
procedures take precedence. Also, if any of the
following procedures differ from the FAA-approved
procedures developed for use by a specific air operator
and/or for use in an FAA-approved training center or
pilot school curriculum, the FAA-approved
procedures for that operator and/or training
center/pilot school take precedence.


The following are speeds that will affect the jet
airplane's takeoff performance. The jet airplane pilot
must be thoroughly familiar with each of these speeds
and how they are used in the planning of the takeoff.
• VS—Stall speed.
• V1—Critical engine failure speed or decision
speed. Engine failure below this speed should
result in an aborted takeoff; above this speed the
takeoff run should be continued.
• VR—Speed at which the rotation of the airplane
is initiated to takeoff attitude. This speed cannot
be less than V1 or less than 1.05 x VMCA
(minimum control speed in the air). On a
single-engine takeoff, it must also allow for the
acceleration to V2 at the 35-foot height at the end
of the runway.
• VLO—The speed at which the airplane first
becomes airborne. This is an engineering term
used when the airplane is certificated and must
meet certain requirements. If it is not listed in the
Airplane Flight Manual, it is within
requirements and does not have to be taken into
consideration by the pilot.
• V2—The takeoff safety speed which must be
attained at the 35-foot height at the end of the
required runway distance. This is essentially the
best single-engine angle of climb speed for the
airplane and should be held until clearing
obstacles after takeoff, or at least 400 feet above
the ground.


Takeoff data, including V1/VR and V2 speeds, takeoff
power settings, and required field length should be
computed prior to each takeoff and recorded on a
takeoff data card. These data will be based on airplane
weight, runway length available, runway gradient,
field temperature, field barometric pressure, wind,
icing conditions, and runway condition. Both pilots
should separately compute the takeoff data and
cross-check in the cockpit with the takeoff data card.