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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



Deep stall progression.
Figure 15-17. Deep stall progression.

Deep stalls are virtually unrecoverable. Fortunately,
they are easily avoided as long as published limitations
are observed. On those airplanes susceptible to deep
stalls (not all swept and/or tapered wing airplanes are),
sophisticated stall warning systems such as stick
shakers and stick pushers are standard equipment. A
stick pusher, as its name implies, acts to automatically
reduce the airplane's angle of attack before the airplane
reaches a fully stalled condition.
Unless the Airplane Flight Manual procedures
stipulate otherwise, a fully stalled condition in a jet
airplane is to be avoided. Pilots undergoing training in
jet airplanes are taught to recover at the first sign of an
impending stall. Normally, this is indicated by aural
stall warning devices and/or activation of the airplane's
stick shaker. Stick shakers normally activate around
107 percent of the actual stall speed. At such slow
speeds, very high sink rates can develop if the
airplane's pitch attitude is decreased below the
horizon, as is normal recovery procedure in most
piston powered straight wing, light airplanes.
Therefore, at the lower altitudes where plenty of
engine thrust is available, the recovery technique in
many sweptwing jets involves applying full available
power, rolling the wings level, and holding a slightly
positive pitch attitude. The amount of pitch attitude
should be sufficient enough to maintain altitude or
begin a slight climb.

At high altitudes, where there may be little excess
thrust available to effect a recovery using power alone,
it may be necessary to lower the nose below the
horizon in order to accelerate away from an impending
stall. This procedure may require several thousand feet
or more of altitude loss to effect a recovery. Stall
recovery techniques may vary considerably from
airplane to airplane. The stall recovery procedures for
a particular make and model airplane, as
recommended by the manufacturer, are contained in
the FAA-approved Airplane Flight Manual for
that airplane.


To the pilot transitioning into jet airplanes, going faster
is seldom a problem. It is getting the airplane to slow
down that seems to cause the most difficulty. This is
because of the extremely clean aerodynamic design
and fast momentum of the jet airplane, and also
because the jet lacks the propeller drag effects that the
pilot has been accustomed to. Additionally, even with
the power reduced to flight idle, the jet engine still
produces thrust, and deceleration of the jet airplane is a
slow process. Jet airplanes have a glide performance
that is double that of piston powered airplanes, and jet
pilots often cannot comply with an air traffic control
request to go down and slow down at the same time.
Therefore, jet airplanes are equipped with drag devices
such as spoilers and speed brakes.
The primary purpose of spoilers is to spoil lift. The
most common type of spoiler consists of one or more
rectangular plates that lie flush with the upper surface
of each wing. They are installed approximately
parallel to the lateral axis of the airplane and are hinged
along the leading edges. When deployed, spoilers
deflect up against the relative wind, which interferes
with the flow of air about the wing. [Figure 15-18] This
both spoils lift and increases drag. Spoilers are usually
installed forward of the flaps but not in front of the
ailerons so as not to interfere with roll control.

Figure 15-18. Spoilers.