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Airplane Flying Handbook
Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures




As previously stated, a turboprop airplane flies just like
any other piston engine airplane of comparable size
and weight. It is in the operation of the engines and
airplane systems that makes the turboprop airplane
different from its piston engine counterpart. Pilot
errors in engine and/or systems operation are the most
common cause of aircraft damage or mishap. The time
of maximum vulnerability to pilot error in any gas
turbine engine is during the engine start sequence.

Turbine engines are extremely heat sensitive. They
cannot tolerate an overtemperature condition for more
than a very few seconds without serious damage being
done. Engine temperatures get hotter during starting
than at any other time. Thus, turbine engines have
minimum rotational speeds for introducing fuel into
the combustion chambers during startup. Hypervigilant
temperature and acceleration monitoring on
the part of the pilot remain crucial until the engine is
running at a stable speed. Successful engine starting
depends on assuring the correct minimum battery
voltage before initiating start, or employing a ground
power unit (GPU) of adequate output.

After fuel is introduced to the combustion chamber
during the start sequence, "light-off" and its associated
heat rise occur very quickly. Engine temperatures may
approach the maximum in a matter of 2 or 3 seconds
before the engine stabilizes and temperatures fall into
the normal operating range. During this time, the pilot
must watch for any tendency of the temperatures to
exceed limitations and be prepared to cut off fuel to
the engine.

An engine tendency to exceed maximum starting
temperature limits is termed a hot start. The temperature
rise may be preceded by unusually high initial fuel
flow, which may be the first indication the pilot has
that the engine start is not proceeding normally.
Serious engine damage will occur if the hot start is
allowed to continue.

A condition where the engine is accelerating more
slowly than normal is termed a hung start or false
start. During a hung start/false start, the engine may
stabilize at an engine r.p.m. that is not high enough for
the engine to continue to run without help from the
starter. This is usually the result of low battery power
or the starter not turning the engine fast enough for it
to start properly.

Example—typical turboprop airplane takeoff and departure profile.
Figure 14-11. Example—typical turboprop airplane takeoff and departure profile.