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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
OPERATION OF SYSTEMS

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

ALTERNATOR/GENERATOR
Alternator or generator paralleling circuitry matches
the output of each engine's alternator/generator so that
the electrical system load is shared equally between
them. In the event of an alternator/generator failure,
the inoperative unit can be isolated and the entire
electrical system powered from the remaining one.
Depending upon the electrical capacity of the alternator/
generator, the pilot may need to reduce the
electrical load (referred to as load shedding) when
operating on a single unit. The AFM/POH will contain
system description and limitations.

NOSE BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT
Nose baggage compartments are common on multiengine
airplanes (and are even found on a few single-engine
airplanes). There is nothing strange or exotic about a
nose baggage compartment, and the usual guidance
concerning observation of load limits applies. They
are mentioned here in that pilots occasionally neglect
to secure the latches properly, and therein lies the
danger. When improperly secured, the door will open
and the contents may be drawn out, usually into the
propeller arc, and usually just after takeoff. Even when
the nose baggage compartment is empty, airplanes
have been lost when the pilot became distracted by the
open door. Security of the nose baggage compartment
latches and locks is a vital preflight item.

Most airplanes will continue to fly with a nose baggage
door open. There may be some buffeting from
the disturbed airflow and there will be an increase in
noise. Pilots should never become so preoccupied
with an open door (of any kind) that they fail to fly
the airplane.

Inspection of the compartment interior is also an
important preflight item. More than one pilot has been
surprised to find a supposedly empty compartment
packed to capacity or loaded with ballast. The tow
bars, engine inlet covers, windshield sun screens, oil
containers, spare chocks, and miscellaneous small
hand tools that find their way into baggage compartments
should be secured to prevent damage from
shifting in flight.

ANTI-ICING/DEICING
Anti-icing/deicing equipment is frequently installed on
multiengine airplanes and consists of a combination of
different systems. These may be classified as either
anti-icing or deicing, depending upon function. The
presence of anti-icing and deicing equipment, even
though it may appear elaborate and complete, does not
necessarily mean that the airplane is approved for
flight in icing conditions. The AFM/POH, placards,
and even the manufacturer should be consulted for
specific determination of approvals and limitations.

Anti-icing equipment is provided to prevent ice from
forming on certain protected surfaces. Anti-icing
equipment includes heated pitot tubes, heated or nonicing
static ports and fuel vents, propeller blades with
electrothermal boots or alcohol slingers, windshields
with alcohol spray or electrical resistance heating,
windshield defoggers, and heated stall warning lift
detectors. On many turboprop engines, the "lip"
surrounding the air intake is heated either electrically
or with bleed air. In the absence of AFM/POH guidance
to the contrary, anti-icing equipment is actuated prior to
flight into known or suspected icing conditions.

Deicing equipment is generally limited to pneumatic
boots on wing and tail leading edges. Deicing equipment
is installed to remove ice that has already formed
on protected surfaces. Upon pilot actuation, the boots
inflate with air from the pneumatic pumps to break off
accumulated ice. After a few seconds of inflation, they
are deflated back to their normal position with the
assistance of a vacuum. The pilot monitors the buildup
of ice and cycles the boots as directed in the
AFM/POH. An ice light on the left engine nacelle
allows the pilot to monitor wing ice accumulation at
night.

Other airframe equipment necessary for flight in icing
conditions includes an alternate induction air source
and an alternate static system source. Ice tolerant
antennas will also be installed.

In the event of impact ice accumulating over normal
engine air induction sources, carburetor heat (carbureted
engines) or alternate air (fuel injected engines)
should be selected. Ice buildup on normal induction
sources can be detected by a loss of engine r.p.m. with
fixed-pitch propellers and a loss of manifold pressure
with constant-speed propellers. On some fuel injected
engines, an alternate air source is automatically
activated with blockage of the normal air source.

An alternate static system provides an alternate source
of static air for the pitot-static system in the unlikely
event that the primary static source becomes blocked.
In non-pressurized airplanes, most alternate static
sources are plumbed to the cabin. On pressurized airplanes,
they are usually plumbed to a non-pressurized
baggage compartment. The pilot must activate the
alternate static source by opening a valve or a fitting in
the cockpit. Upon activation, the airspeed indicator,
altimeter, and the vertical speed indicator (VSI) will be
affected and will read somewhat in error. A correction
table is frequently provided in the AFM/POH.

 

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