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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
MULTIENGINE TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Following a simulated engine failure, the instructor
should continue to care for the "failed" engine just as
the student cares for the operative engine. If zero thrust
is set to simulate a feathered propeller, the cowl flap
should be closed and the mixture leaned. An occasional
clearing of the engine is also desirable. If possible,
avoid high power applications immediately following
a prolonged cool-down at a zero-thrust power setting.
The flight instructor must impress on the student multiengine
pilot the critical importance of feathering the
propeller in a timely manner should an actual engine
failure situation be encountered. Awindmilling propeller,
in many cases, has given the improperly trained
multiengine pilot the mistaken perception that the
failed engine is still developing useful thrust, resulting
in a psychological reluctance to feather, as feathering
results in the cessation of propeller rotation. The flight
instructor should spend ample time demonstrating
the difference in the performance capabilities of the
airplane with a simulated feathered propeller (zero
thrust) as opposed to a windmilling propeller.

All actual propeller feathering should be performed at
altitudes and positions where safe landings on established
airports could be readily accomplished.
Feathering and restart should be planned so as to be
completed no lower than 3,000 feet AGL. At certain
elevations and with many popular multiengine training
airplanes, this may be above the single-engine service
ceiling, and level flight will not be possible.

Repeated feathering and unfeathering is hard on the
engine and airframe, and should be done only as
absolutely necessary to ensure adequate training. The
FAA's practical test standards for a multiengine class
rating requires the feathering and unfeathering of one
propeller during flight in airplanes in which it is safe to
do so.

While much of this chapter has been devoted to the
unique flight characteristics of the multiengine airplane
with one engine inoperative, the modern,
well-maintained reciprocating engine is remarkably
reliable. Simulated engine failures at extremely low
altitudes (such as immediately after lift-off) and/or
below VSSE are undesirable in view of the non-existent
safety margins involved. The high risk of simulating
an engine failure below 200 feet AGL does not warrant
practicing such maneuvers.

For training in maneuvers that would be hazardous in
flight, or for initial and recurrent qualification in an
advanced multiengine airplane, a simulator training
center or manufacturer's training course should be
given consideration. Comprehensive training manuals
and classroom instruction are available along with system
training aids, audio/visuals, and flight training
devices and simulators. Training under a wide variety
of environmental and aircraft conditions is available
through simulation. Emergency procedures that would
be either dangerous or impossible to accomplish in an
airplane can be done safely and effectively in a flight
training device or simulator. The flight training device
or simulator need not necessarily duplicate the specific
make and model of airplane to be useful. Highly
effective instruction can be obtained in training
devices for other makes and models as well as generic
training devices.

The majority of multiengine training is conducted in
four to six-place airplanes at weights significantly less
than maximum. Single-engine performance, particularly
at low density altitudes, may be deceptively good.
To experience the performance expected at higher
weights, altitudes, and temperatures, the instructor
should occasionally artificially limit the amount of
manifold pressure available on the operative engine.
Airport operations above the single-engine ceiling can
also be simulated in this manner. Loading the airplane
with passengers to practice emergencies at maximum
takeoff weight is not appropriate.

The use of the touch-and-go landing and takeoff in
flight training has always been somewhat controversial.
The value of the learning experience must be weighed
against the hazards of reconfiguring the airplane for
takeoff in an extremely limited time as well as the loss
of the follow-through ordinarily experienced in a full
stop landing. Touch and goes are not recommended
during initial aircraft familiarization in multiengine
airplanes.

If touch and goes are to be performed at all, the student
and instructor responsibilities need to be carefully
briefed prior to each flight. Following touchdown, the
student will ordinarily maintain directional control
while keeping the left hand on the yoke and the right
hand on the throttles. The instructor resets the flaps
and trim and announces when the airplane has been
reconfigured. The multiengine airplane needs considerably
more runway to perform a touch and go than a
single-engine airplane. A full stop-taxi back landing is
preferable during initial familiarization. Solo touch
and goes in twins are strongly discouraged.

 

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