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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
MULTIENGINE TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

The rudder limiting technique avoids the hazards of
spinning as a result of stalling with high asymmetrical
power, yet is effective in demonstrating the loss of
directional control.

The Vmc demonstration should never be performed
from a high pitch attitude with both engines operating
and then reducing power on one engine. The preceding
discussion should also give ample warning as to why
engine failures are never to be performed at low airspeeds.
An unfortunate number of airplanes and pilots
have been lost from unwarranted simulated engine
failures at low airspeeds that degenerated into loss of
control of the airplane. VSSE is the minimum airspeed
at which any engine failure should be simulated.

MULTIENGINE TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS

Flight training in a multiengine airplane can be safely
accomplished if both the instructor and the student are
cognizant of the following factors.

• No flight should ever begin without a thorough
preflight briefing of the objectives, maneuvers,
expected student actions, and completion standards.
• A clear understanding must be reached as to how
simulated emergencies will be introduced, and
what action the student is expected to take.

The introduction, practice, and testing of emergency
procedures has always been a sensitive subject.
Surprising a multiengine student with an emergency
without a thorough briefing beforehand has no place
in flight training. Effective training must be carefully
balanced with safety considerations. Simulated engine
failures, for example, can very quickly become actual
emergencies or lead to loss of the airplane when
approached carelessly. Pulling circuit breakers can
lead to a subsequent gear up landing. Stall-spin accidents
in training for emergencies rival the number of
stall-spin accidents from actual emergencies.

All normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures can
and should be introduced and practiced in the airplane
as it sits on the ground, power off. In this respect, the
airplane is used as a cockpit procedures trainer (CPT),
ground trainer, or simulator. The value of this training
should never be underestimated. The engines do not
have to be operating for real learning to occur. Upon
completion of a training session, care should be taken
to return items such as switches, valves, trim, fuel selectors,
and circuit breakers to their normal positions.

Pilots who do not use a checklist effectively will be at
a significant disadvantage in multiengine airplanes.
Use of the checklist is essential to safe operation of
airplanes and no flight should be conducted without
one. The manufacturer's checklist or an aftermarket
checklist for the specific make, model, and model year
should be used. If there is a procedural discrepancy
between the checklist and AFM/POH, then the
AFM/POH always takes precedence.

Certain immediate action items (such as the response
to an engine failure in a critical phase of flight) should
be committed to memory. After they are accomplished,
and as work load permits, the pilot should verify the
action taken with a printed checklist.

Simulated engine failures during the takeoff ground
roll should be accomplished with the mixture control.
The simulated failure should be introduced at a speed
no greater than 50 percent of Vmc. If the student does
not react promptly by retarding both throttles, the
instructor can always pull the other mixture.

The FAA recommends that all in-flight simulated
engine failures below 3,000 feet AGL be introduced
with a smooth reduction of the throttle. Thus, the
engine is kept running and is available for instant use,
if necessary. Throttle reduction should be smooth
rather than abrupt to avoid abusing the engine and possibly
causing damage. All inflight engine failures must
be conducted at Vsse or above.

If the engines are equipped with dynamic crankshaft
counterweights, it is essential to make throttle reductions
for simulated failures smoothly. Other areas leading to
dynamic counterweight damage include high r.p.m. and
low manifold pressure combinations, overboosting, and
propeller feathering. Severe damage or repetitive abuse
to counterweights will eventually lead to engine failure.
Dynamic counterweights are found on larger, more
complex engines—instructors should check with
maintenance personnel or the engine manufacturer to
determine if their engines are so equipped.

When an instructor simulates an engine failure, the
student should respond with the appropriate memory
items and retard the propeller control towards the
FEATHER position. Assuming zero thrust will be set,
the instructor should promptly move the propeller
control forward and set the appropriate manifold
pressure and r.p.m. It is vital that the student be kept
informed of the instructor's intentions. At this point
the instructor may state words to the effect, "I have the
right engine; you have the left. I have set zero thrust
and the right engine is simulated feathered." There
should never be any ambiguity as to who is operating
what systems or controls.

 

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