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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
STALLS

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

STALLS

Stall characteristics vary among multiengine airplanes
just as they do with single-engine airplanes, and
therefore, it is important to be familiar with them. The
application of power upon stall recovery, however,
has a significantly greater effect during stalls in a
twin than a single-engine airplane. In the twin, an
application of power blows large masses of air from
the propellers directly over the wings, producing a
significant amount of lift in addition to the expected
thrust. The multiengine airplane, particularly at light
operating weights, typically has a higher thrust-toweight
ratio, making it quicker to accelerate out of a
stalled condition.

In general, stall recognition and recovery training in
twins is performed similar to any high performance
single-engine airplane. However, for twins, all stall
maneuvers should be planned so as to be completed at
least 3,000 feet AGL.

Single-engine stalls or stalls with significantly more
power on one engine than the other should not be
attempted due to the likelihood of a departure from
controlled flight and possible spin entry. Similarly,
simulated engine failures should not be performed during
stall entry and recovery.

POWER-OFF STALLS (APPROACH AND LANDING)
Power-off stalls are practiced to simulate typical
approach and landing scenarios. To initiate a power-off
stall maneuver, the area surrounding the airplane
should first be cleared for possible traffic. The airplane
should then be slowed and configured for an approach
and landing. Astabilized descent should be established
(approximately 500 f.p.m.) and trim adjusted. The pilot
should then transition smoothly from the stabilized
descent attitude, to a pitch attitude that will induce a
stall. Power is reduced further during this phase, and
trimming should cease at speeds slower than takeoff.

When the airplane reaches a stalled condition, the
recovery is accomplished by simultaneously reducing
the angle of attack with coordinated use of the flight
controls and smoothly applying takeoff or specified
power. The flap setting should be reduced from full to
approach, or as recommended by the manufacturer.
Then with a positive rate of climb, the landing gear is
selected up. The remaining flaps are then retracted as a
climb has commenced. This recovery process should
be completed with a minimum loss of altitude, appropriate
to the aircraft characteristics.

The airplane should be accelerated to Vx (if simulated
obstacles are present) or VY during recovery and climb.
Considerable forward elevator/stabilator pressure will
be required after the stall recovery as the airplane accelerates
to Vx or Vy. Appropriate trim input should be
anticipated.

Power-off stalls may be performed with wings level, or
from shallow and medium banked turns. When recovering
from a stall performed from turning flight, the
angle of attack should be reduced prior to leveling the
wings. Flight control inputs should be coordinated.

It is usually not advisable to execute full stalls in
multiengine airplanes because of their relatively high
wing loading. Stall training should be limited to
approaches to stalls and when a stall condition occurs.
Recoveries should be initiated at the onset, or decay of
control effectiveness, or when the first physical
indication of the stall occurs.

POWER-ON STALLS (TAKEOFF AND DEPARTURE)
Power-on stalls are practiced to simulate typical
takeoff scenarios. To initiate a power-on stall
maneuver, the area surrounding the airplane should
always be cleared to look for potential traffic. The
airplane is slowed to the manufacturer's recommended
lift-off speed. The airplane should be configured in the
takeoff configuration. Trim should be adjusted for this
speed. Engine power is then increased to that recommended
in the AFM/POH for the practice of power-on
stalls. In the absence of a recommended setting, use
approximately 65 percent of maximum available
power while placing the airplane in a pitch attitude that
will induce a stall. Other specified (reduced) power
settings may be used to simulate performance at higher
gross weights and density altitudes.

When the airplane reaches a stalled condition, the
recovery is made by simultaneously lowering the
angle of attack with coordinated use of the flight
controls and applying power as appropriate.

However, if simulating limited power available for
high gross weight and density altitude situations, the
power during the recovery should be limited to that
specified. The recovery should be completed with a
minimum loss of altitude, appropriate to aircraft characteristics.

The landing gear should be retracted when a positive
rate of climb is attained, and flaps retracted, if flaps
were set for takeoff. The target airspeed on recovery is
Vx if (simulated) obstructions are present, or Vy. The
pilot should anticipate the need for nosedown trim as
the airplane accelerates to Vx or Vy after recovery.

Power-on stalls may be performed from straight flight
or from shallow and medium banked turns. When
recovering from a power-on stall performed from turning
flight, the angle of attack should be reduced prior
to leveling the wings, and the flight control inputs
should be coordinated.

 

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